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  • ID:4-4834116 [精] 高考一轮复习学案 第十讲 句子成分(解析版+原卷版)

    高中英语/知识点专区/语法/句型/固定句型

    第 10 讲 句子成分(主、谓、表、宾、定、 状、补语)(解析版) 虽然高考题型没有直接对句子成分的考查类型,但是句子成分是组成句子的基本结构单位,而高考题以篇章考查为主,所以学好句子成分的基础知识,正确分析句子成分和判断句子结构是学好英语的必备基础,这不仅对语法填空和短文改错等题型的解答有直接的影响,而且对写好作文、理解完形填空和阅读理解中出现的长难句有重要意义。所以教师在辅导学生备考复习时,首先要重视句子成分问题,指导考生在这方面打好坚实的基础,为进一步提高学生的语言运用能力做好知识储备。 一、句子成分的分类 从句法功能的角度讲,句子的组成部分叫做句子成分。句子成分可以分为主要成分和次要成分,主要成分有主语(从句)和谓语;次要成分有宾语(从句)、表语(从句)、定语(从句)、状语(从句)、补足语和同位语(从句)。请看下面句子成分的分析,并注意这些句子成分在句子中的位置。 [示例](2018全国卷一)In recent centres, trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education,especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades,all have caused many languages to disappear and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. 在最近的几个世纪,贸易、工业化、民族国家的发展和全球义务教育的蔓延,尤其是过去几十年来,全球化和更好的交流,这些都是导致许多语言消失的原因。而且像英语、西班牙语和汉语这些强大的语言正在不断地占据统治地位。 and连接两个并列句。 第一句子主要成分分析:trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades 主语have caused 谓语many languages 宾语第一句子次要成分分析: all同位语,to disappear状语.第二句子主要成分分析:dominant languages 主语;are taking over谓语.第二句子次要成分分析: such as English, Spanish and Chinese同位语;increasingly状语。 二、句子成分的用法 在了解了句子成分的定义和分类之后,下面结合具体的例子,详细讲解有关句子成分的用法要点。 (一)主语 主语是动作的发出者。通常情况下,一个表示人、物或事的词、短语或从句,来表示谓语动作的执行者或状态情形的主体,就是句子的主语。 位置:主语一般位于句子开头,且不能省略。特例:疑问句、倒装句、祈使句、感叹句等,句子主语可以位于谓语动词之后或省略。 充当主语的词和短语主要有:名词、代词、数词、动名词或动名词短语、动词不定式或动词不定式短语和从句等。 [应用例析] I’m fond of my sister but she has one serious shortcoming.(人教U3) My background is tradition Chinese music. (外研M4) To find a best friend is difficult. (译林U1) No one knows for sure,and making predictions is a risky business. (外研M1) What is even more unbelievable is the fact that some murderers are let out of prison after three or four years. (北师大U24) (二)谓语 谓语描述主语所发出的动作,说明主语的动作或存在的状态。 位置:谓语一般位于主语之后。谓语中的核心部分是行为动词, 特点:它有时态、语态和语气的变化,并受主语人称和数的影响。谓语可以带有自己的状语,具体说明谓语动词所表示的动作发生的时间、频度等。 充当谓语的动词可以分为以下几种: 1.行为动词,这类动词分为不及物动词和及物动词。 2.连系动词,如:be, keep, look, smell, feel, taste, appear, sound, remain, seem, turn, become, get, fall, grow等。 3.助动词,如:be, do, have, will (shall)等。 4.情态动词,如:can/could, may/might, must, shall/should, ought to 等。 [应用例析] Later land animals appeared.(人教③U4) I bought a ticket at a discount and rode the underground three times.(译林⑦U4) The scene looks real.(外研⑧M2) We do no have to put up with pollution.(人教⑥U4) It was too dark, and I couldn' t make out the words written on the wall.(译林⑦U2) (三)宾语 宾语表示谓语动词所表示动作的对象,是动作的承受者。 分类:简单宾语、双宾语(直接宾语+间接宾语)、复合宾语(宾语+宾语补足语)和宾语从句四种。 位置:宾语通常位于谓语动词之后,能够带宾语的主要是及物动词、相当于及物动词的短语动词和介词等。 充当宾语的主要有:名词、代词、数词、动词不定式短语、动名词、名词化的形容词以及从句等。 [应用例析] My?name?is?Jane.?My?ideal?job?is?to?be?a?journalist.(北师大⑤U14) Both?speakers?seemed?very?knowledgeable?abou?the?Internet. (译林⑦U3) The?whole?class?is?here. (外研M1) The?first design?of?the?room?was?in?the?fancy?syle?popular?in?those?days. (人教U1) Her?first?delight?was?going?to?theTower. (人教U2) This?is?how?the?story?goes. (人教U4) (四)表语 表语主要用来说明主语的身份、特征、状态、性质、职业、数量、方向或处所等。 位置:表语一般位于连系动词之后,一般看来,连系动词和表语共同构成谓语。 充当表语的词主要有:名词、代词、形容词、副词、动词不定式、动名词、数词以及从句等。 [应用例析] we oflen do homework together and we enjoy helping each other. (人教U1) He also writes film music. (外研M3) I’ve tried and failed to make paper wtth all these plants. (译林U3) I hope I can go there to study. (北师大⑤U13) (五)定语 定语通常用来修饰名词或相当于名词的词或短语及句子,所以常被称作名词修饰语。分类:前置定语和后置定语 位置:单个的单词作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之前;短语或定语从句作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之后。 充当定语的有:形容词、形容词性物主代词、数词、名词、名词所有格、分词短语、动名词短语、动词不定式短语、介词短语、冠词以及从句等。 [应用例析] Mozi founded the philosophy called Mohism.(外研③M5) Health care is free for everyone living in Britain. (外研②M1) OK, I'm going to make a project book with lots of pictures in it. (北师大③U7) It contains a powerful drug which affects mosquitoes. (人教②U4) (六)状语 状语通常用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作的状态或特征。 位置:比较灵活,可以在句首,也可以在句中或句末。 分类:状语一般可以用来表示时间、地点、目的、原因、结果、条件、让步、程度、方式、比较、以及伴随等情况。 充当状语的有:副词、介词短语、分词短语、动词不定式及状语从句等。 [应用例析] I like talking on the phone. (人教U4) She went back to China, to study journalism at Peking University.(译林U2) Everyone in the world can access the Internet using his World Wide Web system.(外研①M6) When we arrived, we found Wang Li was extremely charming. (人教⑤U4) Personally, I think the team that won first place cheated. (人教②U3) (七)补足语 分类:宾语补足语和主语补足语。 宾语补足语:在主动语态的句子中,一些及物动词的宾语需要在其后加上一个补足语,对其作进一步补充说明,该补足语叫作宾语补足语,宾语及其补足语一起构成复合宾语,二者之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。 主语补足语:在被动语态中补充说明主语的成分叫作主语补足语。 充当补足语的有:名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式、现在分词和过去分词等。 [应用例析] They?called?him?the?prince?of gymnasts. (外研⑤M5) We?found?the?ruins?most?interesting. (译林U3) We?invite?you?to?bring?your?family?and friends on that special day. (人教U4) I’ve?never?heard?the?word?used?in?spoken?English. At times?went?by,?I?was?made?smaller. (人教U3) No?one?is?known?to?have?escaped. (人教U1) He?was?caught?cheating?on?the?exam. The?machine?is?found?in?a?bad?state. (八)同位语 同位语是前面的名词作进一步的补充、限制和说明,使其意义更清楚,意思更完整。 位置:通常是紧跟着它所补充说明的先行名词。 特点:从语法意义而言,同位语与被它说明的先行名词的格要保持一致,并且前后两项所指相同、句法功能也相同。当前后同位关系紧密时,它们之间不用逗号隔开;当同位语只作补充解释时可用逗号把它们隔开。 充当同位语的主要有:名词、名词性短语或从句等。 [应用例析] The first invaders, the Romans, left their towns and roads.(人教⑤U2) We each?have?a?computer. They?two?went,?and?we?three?stayed?behind. The?fact?that?ocean?ships?can?go?there?surprises?many?people. (人教U5) 1.直接宾语 Direct Object与间接宾语 Indirect Object的注意点: 直接宾语一般指动作的承受者,多指物;间接宾语指动作所向者,多指人。间接宾语通常置于直接宾语之前,若放在直接宾语之后,一般须加介词to或for。 带双宾语的及物动词有:answer,bring,buy,do,fetch,get,give,hand,keep, leave,lend,make,offer,owe,pass,pay, play,promise,read, refuse, save, sell, send, show, sing, take, teach, tell, throw, wish, write等。例如: My parents bought me a computer./ My parents bought a computer for me.我父母给我买了一台电胞。 He sent me a birthday gift yesterday. /He sent a birthday gift to me yesterday他昨天给我寄了一份生日礼 it作形式宾语: think, find, make, take, consider, feel等动词后可接it作形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放到宾语补足语之后。例如: I find it interesting that Amencan students have so many clubs.(外研M2) 2. 复合宾语的注意点 复合宾语(Complex Object):宾语与实语补足语一起构成复合实语。常见的接复合宾语的动词有:ask,?tell,?want,?wish,?like,?hate,?see,?watch,?notice,?observe,?hear,feel,have,make,let,get,consider,think,believe,disconer,judge,suppose等,但hope 后不能接符合宾语。 3.定语前置和后置的注意点 修饰some,any,every,no等构成的不定代词时,定语必须后置。例如 Did I miss anything important?我有没有错过什么重要的事? Everybody interested welcome to attend this event!欢迎所有感兴趣的人参加这项活动 副词here,there, above,below, yesterday, tomorrow等作定语时,必须后置。例如 The water there is not safe for drinking.那里的水不适合饮用。 The picture above is drawn by my son.上面那幅画是我儿子画的。 形容词asleep, awake,alive, present(在场的)等作定语时,通常后置。例如: She was the only person awake that night.她是那天晚上唯一醒着的人。 His idea was accepted by all the people present.他的想法为所有在场人员接受 同根的名词和形容词作定语时通常前置,但意义不同。 a horror film恐怖影片 a horrible film今人感到思怖的影 a stone path一条石板路 a stony path 一条铺满碎石的路 a gold cup金质奖杯 golden hair金发 知识点一 主语的特殊形式 例1.________ (ignore) the difference between the two research findings will be one of the worst mistakes you make.    【答案】Ignoring/To ignore 【解析】句意:忽视那两个调查结果的不同将会是你犯的最严重的错误之一。分析句子结构可知,句中谓语为will be,设空处在句中作主语,故用动词不定式或动名词形式均可。 变式训练 1: There they met people from other parts of the country, ________ had also volunteered to help. 知识点二 谓语的特殊形式 例2 While making great efforts to run away, she ________ (fall) over the hill and died. 【答案】fell  【解析】分析句子结构可知,空格处在句中作谓语,结合语境和与之并列的动词died可知,空格处表示过去发生的动作,因此应用一般过去时。 变式训练 2: The understanding between two friends means both of them have similar ideas and trusting each other.(改错) 知识点三 宾语的特殊形式 例3 One morning, I was waiting at the bus stop, worried about ________ (be) late for school. 【答案】being  【解析】空前是介词about,空处作about的宾语,故be需要用动名词形式。 变式训练3: He isn’t good at talk but he gets on well with other people.(改错) 知识点四 表语的特殊形式 例4 Just be ________ (patience). 【答案】patient  【解析】该句是祈使句结构,其中be 是连系动词,故用形容词作表语。 变式训练4:  The teachers here are kind and helpfully. (改错) 知识点五 定语的特殊形式 例5  Freud was one of the first scientists ________ (make) serious research of the mind. 【答案】to make   【解析】分析句子结构可知,空格处应填非谓语动词。由空前的the first可知,应用动词不定式作定语。 变式训练5: So really friendship should be able to stand all sorts of tests. (改错) 知识点六 状语的特殊形式 例6 The river was so polluted that it ________ (actual) caught fire and burned. 【答案】actually  【解析】句中应使用副词actually作状语修饰谓语动词,actual是形容词,不能在句中作状语,通常只作定语或者表语修饰名词。 知识点七 宾补的特殊形式 例7 To his surprise, Jack found his son ________ (dress) as Santa Claus on Christmas Eve. 【答案】dressed  【解析】句意:使杰克惊讶的是,他发现儿子在圣诞节前夜被装扮成了圣诞老人。此处为“find+宾语+宾语补足语”结构,用过去分词作宾语补足语。dress意为“给(某人)穿衣”,常用于dress sb.或sb. be/get dressed结构。 变式训练6: (2013·四川高考短文改错)We were warned not cheat again or she would need to see our parents. 知识点八 同位语的特殊形式 例8 Mr. Johnson cares for us student very much. 【答案】student→students 【解析】此处该名词用作us的同位语成分,故根据us的意义可知,该词需要用复数形式。 变式训练7: His suggestion ________ we should finish the work by the weekend is reasonable. 知识点九 长难句分析 例9 (2018年全国1卷阅读理解A篇)This small group bike tour is a fantastic way to see a world-famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington, D.C.(找出定语) 【答案】to see a world-famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington, D.C.是定语。  【解析】这个小组自行车旅游是观看华盛顿特区闻名世界的,开满了美丽花朵的樱桃树的极好方式。 变式训练8: (2018年全国1卷阅读理解B篇)And the Good Morning Britain presenter says she’s been able to put a lot of what she’s learnt into practice in her own home, preparing meals for sons, Sam,14, Finn,13, and Jack, 11.(找出从句) 一、分析句子成分 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 二、划分句子成分 (主语用____,谓语用  ,宾语用  ,定语用,状语用,补足语用,同位语用) 1.Recently I have carried out a survey among the students in our class. 2.One day some of my students were talking about what we would like to be in the future. 3.Music can make our mind in a peaceful state after a whole day of tiring work. 4.The meeting held yesterday was important. 5.Every day he was forced to work from morning till night. 6.Word came that the mayor would pay a visit to our school next week. 7.A blind man was walking slowly and carefully with a stick in his hand. 8.At the same time, parents are giving their children too much protection. 9.Bathed in the sunshine, we jumped and cheered with joy. 10.We haven’t decided when to discuss the question again. 三、高考真题长难句分析 按要求找出下面句子中的成分 2018年真题: 1. (2018年全国1卷阅读理解D篇) We may think we're a culture that gets rid of our worn technology at the first sight of something shiny and new, but a new study shows that we keep using our old devices(装置) well after they go out of style.(宾语从句) 2. (2018年全国1卷七选五) Whether you’re looking at wallpaper or paint, the time, effort and relative expense put into it are significant. 3. (2018年全国1卷完形填空) In order to pass the class ,among other criteria, we had to write a paper on how we plan to apply what we would learn in class to our future professions and, eventually, to our lives. 4. (2018年全国1卷语法填空)While running regatesalstly cann't make you live forever, the review says it is more effective at lengthening life than walking, cycling or swimming. 2017年真题: 1.(2017年全国1卷阅读理解A篇)It’s an amazing accomplishment and one we cannot achieve without generous support from individuals, corporations, and other social organizations. 2.(2017年全国1卷阅读理解D篇)Then lay the tube in place so that one end rests all the way in the cup and the rest of the line runs up — and out — the side of the hole. 3.(2017年全国1卷阅读七选五)If anyone had told me three years ago that I would be spending most of my weekends camping, I would have laughed heartily. 4.(2017年全国1卷阅读七选五)This brief visit with Mother Nature cost me two days off from work, recovering from a bad case of sunburn and the doctor’s bill for my son’s food poisoning. 5.(2017年全国1卷完形填空)Little did I know that I would discover my love for ASL. 6.(2017年全国1卷完形填空)What I saw was completely unlike anything I had experienced in the past. 7. (2017年全国1卷完形填空)Instead, if there had been any talking, it would have caused us to learn less. 8.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解A篇)By translating the rich and humourous text of Love’s Labour’s Lost into the physical language of BSL, Deafinitely Theatre creates a new interpretation of Shakespeare’s comedy and aims to build a bridge between deaf and hearing worlds by performing to both groups as one audience. 9.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解B篇)The friendship that grew out of the experience of making that film and The Sting four years later had its root in the fact that although there was an age difference, we both came from a tradition of theater and live TV.(同位语从句、让步状语从句) 10.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解B篇)We shared the belief that if you’re fortunate enough to have success, you should put something back 一 he with his Newman’s Own food and his Hole in the Wall camps for kids who are seriously ill, and me with Sundance and the institute and the festival.(同位语从句、条件状语从句、定语从句) 11.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解C篇)Terrafugia says an owner would need to pass a test and complete 20 hours of flying time to be able to fly the Transition, a requirement pilots would find relatively easy to meet . 12.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解D篇) Back in 1983, two scientists, Jack Schultz and Ian Baldwin, reported that young maple trees getting bitten by insects send out a particular smell that neighboring plants can get. (宾语从句、非谓语动词、定语从句) 13.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读七选五)If someone knocks and it’s not an important matter, excuse yourself and let the person know you’re busy so they can get the hint (暗示)that when the door is closed, you’re not to be disturbed. 14.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解B篇)Bradford sold the building and land to a local development firm, which plans to build a shopping complex on the land where the theater is located.(定语从句) 15.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解D篇)The Intelligent Transport team at Newcastle University have turned an electric car into a mobile laboratory named “DriveLAB” in order to understand the challenges faced by older drivers and to discover where the key stress points are. 16.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解D篇)For many older people, particularly those living alone or in the country, driving is important for preserving their independence, giving them the freedom to get out and about without having to rely on others. 17.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解D篇)Research shows that giving up driving is one of the key reasons for a fall in health and well-being among older people, leading to them becoming more isolated (隔绝) and inactive. 18.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷完形填空) Axani wrote in his post that he is not looking for anything in return and that the woman who uses the extra ticket can choose to either travel with him or take the ticket and travel on her own. 10 第 10 讲 句子成分(主、谓、表、宾、定、 状、补语)(解析版) 虽然高考题型没有直接对句子成分的考查类型,但是句子成分是组成句子的基本结构单位,而高考题以篇章考查为主,所以学好句子成分的基础知识,正确分析句子成分和判断句子结构是学好英语的必备基础,这不仅对语法填空和短文改错等题型的解答有直接的影响,而且对写好作文、理解完形填空和阅读理解中出现的长难句有重要意义。所以教师在辅导学生备考复习时,首先要重视句子成分问题,指导考生在这方面打好坚实的基础,为进一步提高学生的语言运用能力做好知识储备。 一、句子成分的分类 从句法功能的角度讲,句子的组成部分叫做句子成分。句子成分可以分为主要成分和次要成分,主要成分有主语(从句)和谓语;次要成分有宾语(从句)、表语(从句)、定语(从句)、状语(从句)、补足语和同位语(从句)。请看下面句子成分的分析,并注意这些句子成分在句子中的位置。 [示例](2018全国卷一)In recent centres, trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education,especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades,all have caused many languages to disappear and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. 在最近的几个世纪,贸易、工业化、民族国家的发展和全球义务教育的蔓延,尤其是过去几十年来,全球化和更好的交流,这些都是导致许多语言消失的原因。而且像英语、西班牙语和汉语这些强大的语言正在不断地占据统治地位。 and连接两个并列句。 第一句子主要成分分析:trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades 主语have caused 谓语many languages 宾语第一句子次要成分分析: all同位语,to disappear状语.第二句子主要成分分析:dominant languages 主语;are taking over谓语.第二句子次要成分分析:such as English, Spanish and Chinese同位语;increasingly状语。 二、句子成分的用法 在了解了句子成分的定义和分类之后,下面结合具体的例子,详细讲解有关句子成分的用法要点。 (一)主语 主语是动作的发出者。通常情况下,一个表示人、物或事的词、短语或从句,来表示谓语动作的执行者或状态情形的主体,就是句子的主语。 位置:主语一般位于句子开头,且不能省略。特例:疑问句、倒装句、祈使句、感叹句等,句子主语可以位于谓语动词之后或省略。 充当主语的词和短语主要有:名词、代词、数词、动名词或动名词短语、动词不定式或动词不定式短语和从句等。 [应用例析] I’m fond of my sister but she has one serious shortcoming.(人教U3) My background is tradition Chinese music. (外研M4) To find a best friend is difficult. (译林U1) No one knows for sure,and making predictions is a risky business. (外研M1) What is even more unbelievable is the fact that some murderers are let out of prison after three or four years. (北师大U24) (二)谓语 谓语描述主语所发出的动作,说明主语的动作或存在的状态。 位置:谓语一般位于主语之后。谓语中的核心部分是行为动词, 特点:它有时态、语态和语气的变化,并受主语人称和数的影响。谓语可以带有自己的状语,具体说明谓语动词所表示的动作发生的时间、频度等。 充当谓语的动词可以分为以下几种: 1.行为动词,这类动词分为不及物动词和及物动词。 2.连系动词,如:be, keep, look, smell, feel, taste, appear, sound, remain, seem, turn, become, get, fall, grow等。 3.助动词,如:be, do, have, will (shall)等。 4.情态动词,如:can/could, may/might, must, shall/should, ought to 等。 [应用例析] Later land animals appeared.(人教③U4) I bought a ticket at a discount and rode the underground three times.(译林⑦U4) The scene looks real.(外研⑧M2) We do no have to put up with pollution.(人教⑥U4) It was too dark, and I couldn' t make out the words written on the wall.(译林⑦U2) (三)宾语 宾语表示谓语动词所表示动作的对象,是动作的承受者。 分类:简单宾语、双宾语(直接宾语+间接宾语)、复合宾语(宾语+宾语补足语)和宾语从句四种。 位置:宾语通常位于谓语动词之后,能够带宾语的主要是及物动词、相当于及物动词的短语动词和介词等。 充当宾语的主要有:名词、代词、数词、动词不定式短语、动名词、名词化的形容词以及从句等。 [应用例析] My?name?is?Jane.?My?ideal?job?is?to?be?a?journalist.(北师大⑤U14) Both?speakers?seemed?very?knowledgeable?abou?the?Internet. (译林⑦U3) The?whole?class?is?here. (外研M1) The?first design?of?the?room?was?in?the?fancy?syle?popular?in?those?days. (人教U1) Her?first?delight?was?going?to?theTower. (人教U2) This?is?how?the?story?goes. (人教U4) (四)表语 表语主要用来说明主语的身份、特征、状态、性质、职业、数量、方向或处所等。 位置:表语一般位于连系动词之后,一般看来,连系动词和表语共同构成谓语。 充当表语的词主要有:名词、代词、形容词、副词、动词不定式、动名词、数词以及从句等。 [应用例析] we oflen do homework together and we enjoy helping each other. (人教U1) He also writes film music. (外研M3) I’ve tried and failed to make paper wtth all these plants. (译林U3) I hope I can go there to study. (北师大⑤U13) (五)定语 定语通常用来修饰名词或相当于名词的词或短语及句子,所以常被称作名词修饰语。分类:前置定语和后置定语 位置:单个的单词作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之前;短语或定语从句作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之后。 充当定语的有:形容词、形容词性物主代词、数词、名词、名词所有格、分词短语、动名词短语、动词不定式短语、介词短语、冠词以及从句等。 [应用例析] Mozi founded the philosophy called Mohism.(外研③M5) Health care is free for everyone living in Britain. (外研②M1) OK, I'm going to make a project book with lots of pictures in it. (北师大③U7) It contains a powerful drug which affects mosquitoes. (人教②U4) (六)状语 状语通常用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作的状态或特征。 位置:比较灵活,可以在句首,也可以在句中或句末。 分类:状语一般可以用来表示时间、地点、目的、原因、结果、条件、让步、程度、方式、比较、以及伴随等情况。 充当状语的有:副词、介词短语、分词短语、动词不定式及状语从句等。 [应用例析] I like talking on the phone. (人教U4) She went back to China, to study journalism at Peking University.(译林U2) Everyone in the world can access the Internet using his World Wide Web system.(外研①M6) When we arrived, we found Wang Li was extremely charming. (人教⑤U4) Personally, I think the team that won first place cheated. (人教②U3) (七)补足语 分类:宾语补足语和主语补足语。 宾语补足语:在主动语态的句子中,一些及物动词的宾语需要在其后加上一个补足语,对其作进一步补充说明,该补足语叫作宾语补足语,宾语及其补足语一起构成复合宾语,二者之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。 主语补足语:在被动语态中补充说明主语的成分叫作主语补足语。 充当补足语的有:名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式、现在分词和过去分词等。 [应用例析] They?called?him?the?prince?of gymnasts. (外研⑤M5) We?found?the?ruins?most?interesting. (译林U3) We?invite?you?to?bring?your?family?and friends on that special day. (人教U4) I’ve?never?heard?the?word?used?in?spoken?English. At times?went?by,?I?was?made?smaller. (人教U3) No?one?is?known?to?have?escaped. (人教U1) He?was?caught?cheating?on?the?exam. The?machine?is?found?in?a?bad?state. (八)同位语 同位语是前面的名词作进一步的补充、限制和说明,使其意义更清楚,意思更完整。 位置:通常是紧跟着它所补充说明的先行名词。 特点:从语法意义而言,同位语与被它说明的先行名词的格要保持一致,并且前后两项所指相同、句法功能也相同。当前后同位关系紧密时,它们之间不用逗号隔开;当同位语只作补充解释时可用逗号把它们隔开。 充当同位语的主要有:名词、名词性短语或从句等。 [应用例析] The first invaders, the Romans, left their towns and roads.(人教⑤U2) We each?have?a?computer. They?two?went,?and?we?three?stayed?behind. The?fact?that?ocean?ships?can?go?there?surprises?many?people. (人教U5) 1.直接宾语 Direct Object与间接宾语 Indirect Object的注意点: 直接宾语一般指动作的承受者,多指物;间接宾语指动作所向者,多指人。间接宾语通常置于直接宾语之前,若放在直接宾语之后,一般须加介词to或for。 带双宾语的及物动词有:answer,bring,buy,do,fetch,get,give,hand,keep, leave,lend,make,offer,owe,pass,pay, play,promise,read, refuse, save, sell, send, show, sing, take, teach, tell, throw, wish, write等。例如: My parents bought me a computer./ My parents bought a computer for me.我父母给我买了一台电胞。 He sent me a birthday gift yesterday. /He sent a birthday gift to me yesterday他昨天给我寄了一份生日礼 it作形式宾语: think, find, make, take, consider, feel等动词后可接it作形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放到宾语补足语之后。例如: I find it interesting that Amencan students have so many clubs.(外研M2) 2. 复合宾语的注意点 复合宾语(Complex Object):宾语与实语补足语一起构成复合实语。常见的接复合宾语的动词有:ask,?tell,?want,?wish,?like,?hate,?see,?watch,?notice,?observe,?hear,feel,have,make,let,get,consider,think,believe,disconer,judge,suppose等,但hope 后不能接符合宾语。 3.定语前置和后置的注意点 修饰some,any,every,no等构成的不定代词时,定语必须后置。例如 Did I miss anything important?我有没有错过什么重要的事? Everybody interested welcome to attend this event!欢迎所有感兴趣的人参加这项活动 副词here,there, above,below, yesterday, tomorrow等作定语时,必须后置。例如 The water there is not safe for drinking.那里的水不适合饮用。 The picture above is drawn by my son.上面那幅画是我儿子画的。 形容词asleep, awake,alive, present(在场的)等作定语时,通常后置。例如: She was the only person awake that night.她是那天晚上唯一醒着的人。 His idea was accepted by all the people present.他的想法为所有在场人员接受 同根的名词和形容词作定语时通常前置,但意义不同。 a horror film恐怖影片 a horrible film今人感到思怖的影 a stone path一条石板路 a stony path 一条铺满碎石的路 a gold cup金质奖杯 golden hair金发 知识点一 主语的特殊形式 例1.________ (ignore) the difference between the two research findings will be one of the worst mistakes you make.    【答案】Ignoring/To ignore 【解析】句意:忽视那两个调查结果的不同将会是你犯的最严重的错误之一。分析句子结构可知,句中谓语为will be,设空处在句中作主语,故用动词不定式或动名词形式均可。 变式训练 1: 1)There they met people from other parts of the country, ________ had also volunteered to help. 【答案】who  【解析】句意:在那里他们遇到了从这个国家其他地方来的人,他们也是自愿来帮忙的。分析句子结构可知,此处应是非限制性定语从句的引导词,先行词是people,从句缺少主语,故填关系代词who。 知识点二 谓语的特殊形式 例2 While making great efforts to run away, she ________ (fall) over the hill and died. 【答案】fell  【解析】分析句子结构可知,空格处在句中作谓语,结合语境和与之并列的动词died可知,空格处表示过去发生的动作,因此应用一般过去时。 变式训练 2: The understanding between two friends means both of them have similar ideas and trusting each other.(改错) 【答案】trusting→trust  【解析】主句中谓语动词means之后跟有宾语从句,从句中连词and连接并列谓语,根据前一个谓语动词have可知,trust需要用动词原形的形式。 知识点三 宾语的特殊形式 例3 One morning, I was waiting at the bus stop, worried about ________ (be) late for school. 【答案】being  【解析】空前是介词about,空处作about的宾语,故be需要用动名词形式。 变式训练3:  He isn’t good at talk but he gets on well with other people. (改错) 【答案】talk→talking  【解析】动词短语“be good at”中at是介词,故之后需要跟动名词作宾语。 知识点四 表语的特殊形式 例4 Just be ________ (patience). 【答案】patient  【解析】该句是祈使句结构,其中be 是连系动词,故用形容词作表语。 变式训练4:  The teachers here are kind and helpfully. 【答案】helpfully→helpful   【解析】该句是“主系表”结构,其中连词and连接并列的表语,故后者需要用形容词形式。 知识点五 定语的特殊形式 例5  Freud was one of the first scientists ________ (make) serious research of the mind. 【答案】to make   【解析】分析句子结构可知,空格处应填非谓语动词。由空前的the first可知,应用动词不定式作定语。 变式训练5: So really friendship should be able to stand all sorts of tests. (改错) 【答案】really→real  【解析】句中用作主语的friendship是名词,所以用形容词修饰,该形容词作定语。 知识点六 状语的特殊形式 例6 The river was so polluted that it ________ (actual) caught fire and burned. 【答案】actually  【解析】句中应使用副词actually作状语修饰谓语动词,actual是形容词,不能在句中作状语,通常只作定语或者表语修饰名词。 知识点七 宾补的特殊形式 例7 To his surprise, Jack found his son ________ (dress) as Santa Claus on Christmas Eve. 【答案】dressed  【解析】句意:使杰克惊讶的是,他发现儿子在圣诞节前夜被装扮成了圣诞老人。此处为“find+宾语+宾语补足语”结构,用过去分词作宾语补足语。dress意为“给(某人)穿衣”,常用于dress sb.或sb. be/get dressed结构。 变式训练6: (2013·四川高考短文改错)We were warned not cheat again or she would need to see our parents. 【答案】cheat前加to 【解析】该句是or连接的并列句,前一个分句使用了“warn sb.to do sth.”这一结构的被动语态,其中cheat应该作主语补足语,故此处要添加动词不定式符号to。 知识点八 同位语的特殊形式 例8 Mr. Johnson cares for us student very much. (改错) 【答案】student→students 【解析】此处该名词用作us的同位语成分,故根据us的意义可知,该词需要用复数形式。 变式训练7: His suggestion ________ we should finish the work by the weekend is reasonable. 【答案】that  【解析】分析句子结构可知,主语是his suggestion,谓语部分是“系表”结构,主语之后的是一个完整的句子,说明主语的含义,是同位语从句,需要用that引导。 知识点九 长难句分析 例9 (2018年全国1卷阅读理解A篇)This small group bike tour is a fantastic way to see a world-famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington, D.C.(找出定语) 【答案】to see a world-famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington, D.C.是定语。  【解析】这个小组自行车旅游是观看华盛顿特区闻名世界的,开满了美丽花朵的樱桃树的极好方式。 变式训练8: (2018年全国1卷阅读理解B篇)And the Good Morning Britain presenter says she’s been able to put a lot of what she’s learnt into practice in her own home, preparing meals for sons, Sam,14, Finn,13, and Jack, 11. (找出从句) 【答案】says后是省略that的宾语从句,其中what引导的宾语从句做of 的宾语。“preparing meals for.”是现在分词短语作伴随状语。  【解析】译文:《早安英国》的节目主持人说,她能够在自己家里把许多学到的东西付诸实践,即为儿子们(14岁的Sam,13岁的Finn和11岁的Jack)做饭。 一、分析句子成分 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 二、划分句子成分 (主语用____,谓语用  ,宾语用  ,定语用,状语用,补足语用,同位语用) 1.Recently I have carried out a survey among the students in our class. 2.One day some of my students were talking about what we would like to be in the future. 3.Music can make our mind in a peaceful state after a whole day of tiring work. 4.The meeting held yesterday was important. 5.Every day he was forced to work from morning till night. 6.Word came that the mayor would pay a visit to our school next week. 7.A blind man was walking slowly and carefully with a stick in his hand. 8.At the same time, parents are giving their children too much protection. 9.Bathed in the sunshine, we jumped and cheered with joy. 10.We haven’t decided when to discuss the question again. 三、高考真题长难句分析 按要求找出下面句子中的成分 2018年真题: 1. (2018年全国1卷阅读理解D篇) We may think we're a culture that gets rid of our worn technology at the first sight of something shiny and new, but a new study shows that we keep using our old devices(装置) well after they go out of style.(宾语从句) 2. (2018年全国1卷七选五) Whether you’re looking at wallpaper or paint, the time, effort and relative expense put into it are significant. 3. (2018年全国1卷完形填空) In order to pass the class ,among other criteria, we had to write a paper on how we plan to apply what we would learn in class to our future professions and, eventually, to our lives. 4. (2018年全国1卷语法填空)While running regatesalstly cann't make you live forever, the review says it is more effective at lengthening life than walking, cycling or swimming. 2017年真题: 1.(2017年全国1卷阅读理解A篇)It’s an amazing accomplishment and one we cannot achieve without generous support from individuals, corporations, and other social organizations. 2.(2017年全国1卷阅读理解D篇)Then lay the tube in place so that one end rests all the way in the cup and the rest of the line runs up — and out — the side of the hole. 3.(2017年全国1卷阅读七选五)If anyone had told me three years ago that I would be spending most of my weekends camping, I would have laughed heartily. 4.(2017年全国1卷阅读七选五)This brief visit with Mother Nature cost me two days off from work, recovering from a bad case of sunburn and the doctor’s bill for my son’s food poisoning. 5.(2017年全国1卷完形填空)Little did I know that I would discover my love for ASL. 6.(2017年全国1卷完形填空)What I saw was completely unlike anything I had experienced in the past. 7. (2017年全国1卷完形填空)Instead, if there had been any talking, it would have caused us to learn less. 8.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解A篇)By translating the rich and humourous text of Love’s Labour’s Lost into the physical language of BSL, Deafinitely Theatre creates a new interpretation of Shakespeare’s comedy and aims to build a bridge between deaf and hearing worlds by performing to both groups as one audience. 9.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解B篇)The friendship that grew out of the experience of making that film and The Sting four years later had its root in the fact that although there was an age difference, we both came from a tradition of theater and live TV.(同位语从句、让步状语从句) 10.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解B篇)We shared the belief that if you’re fortunate enough to have success, you should put something back 一 he with his Newman’s Own food and his Hole in the Wall camps for kids who are seriously ill, and me with Sundance and the institute and the festival.(同位语从句、条件状语从句、定语从句) 11.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解C篇)Terrafugia says an owner would need to pass a test and complete 20 hours of flying time to be able to fly the Transition, a requirement pilots would find relatively easy to meet . 12.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解D篇) Back in 1983, two scientists, Jack Schultz and Ian Baldwin, reported that young maple trees getting bitten by insects send out a particular smell that neighboring plants can get. (宾语从句、非谓语动词、定语从句) 13.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读七选五)If someone knocks and it’s not an important matter, excuse yourself and let the person know you’re busy so they can get the hint (暗示)that when the door is closed, you’re not to be disturbed. 14.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解B篇)Bradford sold the building and land to a local development firm, which plans to build a shopping complex on the land where the theater is located.(定语从句) 15.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解D篇)The Intelligent Transport team at Newcastle University have turned an electric car into a mobile laboratory named “DriveLAB” in order to understand the challenges faced by older drivers and to discover where the key stress points are. 16.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解D篇)For many older people, particularly those living alone or in the country, driving is important for preserving their independence, giving them the freedom to get out and about without having to rely on others. 17.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解D篇)Research shows that giving up driving is one of the key reasons for a fall in health and well-being among older people, leading to them becoming more isolated (隔绝) and inactive. 18.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷完形填空) Axani wrote in his post that he is not looking for anything in return and that the woman who uses the extra ticket can choose to either travel with him or take the ticket and travel on her own. 答案解析 一、 1. ①状语 ②主语 ③谓语 ④宾语 ⑤状语 2. ①状语 ②主语 ③谓语 ④宾语 3. ①主语 ②谓语 ③宾语 ④宾补 ⑤状语 4. ①主语 ②定语 ③谓语(系动词+表语) 5. ①状语 ②主语 ③谓语 ④主补 6. ①主语 ②谓语 ③同位语 二、 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. We haven’t decided when to discuss the question again. 三、 2018年真题: 1. 分析:本句是一个并列复合句。“ think”后面为省略了that的宾语从句;从句中的that引导定语从句,并在定语从句中作主语;“ shows”后面是that引导的宾语从句; after引导时间状语从句。译文:我们可能会认为我们处于这样一种文化中:一看到闪闪发亮的新产品,我们就会扔掉旧技术,但一项新的研究表明,旧设备过时后,我们仍在继续使用它们。 2. 分析:本句是一个复合句。“ Whether you're looking at wallpaper or pain”是让步状语从句,引导词是“ whether…0r..,”,意为“不管是……还是……”; put into it是过去分词,短语作“ the time, effort and relative expense"”的后置定语。译文:无论你是在看壁纸还是涂料,你在上面投入的时间、精力和相关费用都是有意义的。 3. 分析:本句是一个复合句。how和what均引导宾语从句;“ In order to pass the class"作目的状语。译文:除其他标准外,为了通过这门课,我们还必须写一篇论文,论文是关于我们如何计划把我们在课堂上将要学到的知识应用到我们未来的职业中,并最终应用到我们的生活中。 4. 分析:本句是一个复合句, While引导让步状语从句;says后面是省略了引导词that的宾语从句;“ live forever”在句中作宾语补足语。译文:虽然经常跑步并不能让你长生不老,但该评论说它比散步、骑自行车或游泳能更有效地延长寿命。 2017年真题: 1. 句意:这是一个惊人的成就,一个没有来自个人、公司和其他社会组织的慷慨的支持我们就不可能取得的成就。 分析:本句为复合句。其中,one指代前面的accomplishment,后面为定语从句,修饰先行词one,且从句使用了cannot和without表示双重否定。 2. 句意:接着把管子放在恰当的位置,使得管子的一端放在杯子里,管子的其余部分向上延伸到坑的外部。 分析:本句为复合句。主句lay the tube in place为祈使句;so that引导目的状语从句,从句是and连接的并列句。 3. 句意:如果三年前有人告诉我会用大部分的周末时间来野营,我会狂笑不已。 分析:本句为主从复合句。if引导的是条件状语从句,因表示对与过去事实相反的假设,所以本句中条件句使用过去完成时。此外从句中包含了一个that引导宾语从句。 4. 句意:这次跟自然母亲的短暂亲近用去了我两天的假期,被严重晒伤的皮肤还需慢慢恢复,而且还花费了一笔钱为我儿子食物中毒看医生。 分析:句中cost后的直接宾语有三个,即A,B and C三个并列宾语。 5. 句意:我不知道我竟然会爱上美式手语。 分析:此句为倒装句,little为否定词,当否定词位于句首时,句子要使用部分倒装。 6. 句意:我所看到的和我之前经历的完全不同。 分析:此句中what 引导的是主语从句,作句子的主语。此外,I had experienced in the past为定语从句,修饰先行词anything。 7. 句意:相反,如果有任何交谈,那会导致我们学到较少的东西。 分析:本句为复合句。if引导的是虚拟条件句,表示对过去的虚拟,所以本句中条件状语从句使用过去完成时there had been;主句使用“would have done”结构。 8. 句意:通过把《爱的徒劳》那丰富、幽默的文本翻译成手语,Deafinitely 剧院创造了一种对莎士比亚喜剧新的解释,通过向失聪人群和听力健全人群演出,旨在在失聪和有声世界之间搭建一座桥梁。 分析:在本句中,By translating ... BSL为方式状语,and连接creates和aims两个动词作并列谓语。 9. 句意:拍电影和四年后出演The Sting的经历所建立起来的友谊源于一个事实:尽管我们存在年龄差距,但我们都源自戏剧和直播电视的传统。 分析:本句的主干是 The friendship had its root in the fact.。其中,grew out of... later为that引导的定语从句,修饰先行词friendship;后面的although there was ... live TV为that引导的同位语从句,解释说明fact的内容。此外,同位语从句中还包含了一个although引导的让步状语从句。 10. 句意:我们有着这样的信念——如果足够幸运获得成功,就应该有所回馈。他成立了 Newman’s Own食品公司和为病重的孩子成立了Hole in the Wall camps夏令营,而我成立了圣丹斯协会和电影节。 分析:本句中,that引导同位语从句,解释说明belief的内容;同位语从句中包含了一个if引导的条件状语从句;破折号后出现了一个who引导的定语从句,修饰先行词kid。 11. 句意:Terrafugia 说机主需要通过测试并且完成20个小时的飞行时间才能驾驶 Transition,这一要求对于飞行员来说相对容易满足。 分析:本句中 a requirement 为同位语,是对前面的内容作补充说明,pilots would find relatively easy to meet是定语从句,省略了充当宾语的关系代词that/which,修饰先行词requirement。 12. 句意:早在1983年,杰克?舒尔茨和伊恩?鲍德温两个科学家报道说被昆虫咬的年轻枫树释放会一种邻近的植物能够获得的特殊气味。 分析:本句中that引导宾语从句,作reported的宾语,从句中包含一个that引导的定语从句,修饰先行词smell。getting bitten by insects为现在分词作后置定语,修饰maple trees。 13. 句意为:如果有人敲门,并且不是什么重要的事情,那就礼貌地谢绝,让别人知道你很忙,这样他们就会得到暗示,当门关着的时候,你不想被打扰。 分析:本句为if引导条件状语从句。在主句中,you’re busy是know的宾语从句;so引导结果状语从句,在结果状语从句中包含一个that引导同位语从句,解释说明hint的内容。同时同位语从句又包含了一个when引导时间状语从句,因此句子的主句为you’re not to be disturbed.。 14. 句意:布拉德福德把建筑物和土地卖给了一家当地的开发商,这家开发商打算在电影院所在的土地上建一个购物中心。 分析:本句中which引导非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词a local development firm;此外,定语从句中又包含一个where引导的定语从句。 15. 句意:纽卡斯尔大学的智能运输团队已经把电动汽车转变成名叫“DriveLAB”的移动实验室,目的是了解老年人司机面临的挑战和发现关键的问题所在。 16. 句意:对于很多老年人来说,特别是那些独自居住在乡间的老年人,驾驶对于保持他们(老年人)的独立性是非常重要的,这也给了他们出行而不用依赖他人的自由。 17. 句意:研究表明,放弃驾驶是导致老年人健康状况下降的主要原因之一,导致他们变得更加隔绝和懒散。 分析:that引导宾语从句,宾语从句中giving up driving为动名词短语作主语,leading to...作现在分词作状语。 18. 句意:Axani 在他的帖中说:他并不是寻求任何回报,使用这张多余机票的女士可以选择与他一起旅行,或者拿走机票自己旅行。 分析:本句中,that…and that…是并列的两个宾语从句,作wrote的宾语, who uses the extra ticket为定语从句,修饰先行词the woman。 10

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  • ID:4-4505880 高中英语情态动词的用法(30张PPT)

    高中英语/知识点专区/语法/情态动词

    高中英语情态动词的用法(30张ppt):30张PPTGrammar---情态动词 概念: 表说话的语气,态度和看法,意愿等的词。 特点: 1. 没有人称和数的变化 2. 不能独立使用,它和后面的动词构成谓语,接动词原形 3. 变疑问句和否定句时,不需助动词,将情态动词直接移动至主语前变为疑问句,直接在情态动词后加not变否定 ================================================ 压缩包内容: 高中英语情态动词的用法(30张ppt).ppt

    • 授课课件
    • 2018-05-10
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    • hysj168
  • ID:4-4217610 2018届高考英语语法专题主语从句课件(55张PPT)

    高中英语/知识点专区/语法/名词性从句/主语从句

    2018届高考英语语法专题主语从句课件(55张) 什么是主语? I like English. The train left. 主语:是一个句子说明的人或事物,即叙述的主题,一般位于______ 找出主语 Jim is good at playing the piano. To see is to believe. Smoking is bad for health. What he has said is true. 主语从句 (Subject Clause) 在主从复合句中充当主语的从句就是主语从句, 它是名词性从句之一。引导主语从句的连接词有: 从属连词that, whether;连接代词who, what和which;连接副词when, where, how和why。 考纲专题解读 1.了解名词性从句的基本用法,掌握名词性从句的引导词及引导词在名词性从句中的作用,辨析that与what,if与whether等引导词的用法。 2.明确it作形式主语和形式宾语、代替主语从句及宾语从句的用法,及其与强调句的区别。 3.区分that引导的同位语从句及定语从句。