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高中英语知识点专区
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  • ID:4-5465286 定语从句课件(40张)

    高中英语/知识点专区/语法/定语从句

    The Attributive Clause 1 Unit 4 Grammar Attribute (定语) 1. He is an honest boy. 2. We love our country. 3. What’s your telephone number? 4. She is a beautiful girl. 修饰;限定 honest our telephone 找出下列句中的定语。 beautiful apple the red the green The apple which is red is mine. The apple is yours. . which is green the clever the naughty boy The boy is gazi. The boy who is clever is gazi. The boy who is naughty is gazi. How do you describe the house? There is a house with red walls, green windows and the golden roof . There is a house whose walls are red . There is a house. The house's /Its walls are red. the attributive clause There is a house whose windows are green. There is a house whose roof is golden (the attributive clause ) The positions of the attribute: (定语的位置) 1. This is a flower basket. 2. This is a basket full of flowers. 3. This is a basket that I want to put flowers in. 单个的词作定语时要放于被修饰词的前面,短语或从句作定语时要放于被修饰词的后面。 定语从句:是指在复合句中, 修饰 或 的从句。 被定语从句所修饰的名词或代 词叫做“ ”。 引导定语从句的词叫“ ”。 名词 代词 先行词 关系词 The Attributive clause 定语从句 She is the girl who can speak English very well. 先行词 关系词 关系词 关系 代词 关系 副词 who whom that which whose when where why 先行词就是定语从句中定语所修饰的名词或代词。 My sister, who is twenty, works in a bank. The man who came here yesterday has come again. The doctor whom you are looking for is in the room The computer that my father bought is cheap The boy whose glasses is white is our monitor . . 啥时用关系代词啥时用关系副词呀!!! 选用关系词,需要看两点: 1.看先行词 2. 看关系词在从句中充当的成分。 做主语,宾语,定语,表语 做状语用 关系代词 关系副词 练习:用定语从句连成一个句子 The girl is a singer. (定)The girl is sitting in the corner. The girl is a singer. who is sitting in the corner who This is the person. (定)I talked to the person just now. This is the person whom I talked to just now. This is the person to whom I talked just now. whom I have many friends. (定)I send postcards to my friends before their birthday. I have many friends whom I send postcards to before their birthday. I have many friends to whom I send postcards before their birthday. whom who Don’t expect people to do things. (定)You wouldn’t do the things yourself. Don’t expect people to do things you wouldn’t do yourself. which which Which baby is Jack? 穿红裤子的baby是Jack。 The baby is Jack. The baby is Jack. whose trousers are red who is wearing red trousers Jack Which house is mine? 房顶是棕色的房子是我的。 The house is mine. whose roof is brown my house The house is brown is mine. the roof of which 1 I know the doctor. 2 His daughter studies abroad. I know the doctor whose daughter studies abroad. 1 Have you seen my book? 2 The book’s cover is red. Have you seen my book whose cover is red? 关系代词用法 人/物 主/宾 主/宾 主/宾 宾 定 人 人 人/物 物 Summary 关系代词   指代 在从句中的作用 that which who whom whose (=of which/ whom) 把下列句子分成两层意思。 The one million people of the city, who thought little of these events, went to bed as usual that night. 1 The one million people of the city went to bed as usual that night. 2 The one million people of the city thought little of these events. A huge crack that was eight kilometres long and thirty metres wide cut across houses, roads and canals. 1 A huge crack cut across houses, roads and canals. 2 A huge crack was eight kilometres long and thirty metres wide. The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead. 1 The army organized teams to dig out people and to bury the dead. 2 Those people were trapped. The number of people who were killed or injured reached more than 400, 000. 1 The number of people reached more than 400, 000. 2 Those people were killed or injured. 一般多用that的情况 I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow. I’ve read all the books that are not mine. 先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much 等不 定代词时。 2. 先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等修饰时。 This is the first book (that) he has read. This is the very book that belongs to him. 3. 先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。 4. 先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时。 5. who或which的问句中。 Who is the girl that drove the car? Which is the book that you bought last week? There are 200 people that didn’t know the thing. 7. 当先行词在定语从句中作be表语时 She isn’t the girl that she was 10 years ago. 6. 主句以There be 引导时 以下情况用which, 不用that 1. 关系代词前有介词 This is the house in which he was born. 2. 在非限制性定语从句中 Alice received an invitation from her boss, which came as a surprise. 3.先行词是that,引导词用which That which you told him about is what we want to know 高考链接 My friend showed me round the town, ____was very kind of him. A. which B. that C. where D. it 解析:A which 引导非限制性定语从句 which 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句: My sister, who is twenty, works in a bank. The man who came here yesterday has come again. 限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语, 如果去掉,主句的意思就不完整或失去意义。这种从 句和主句关系十分密切, 写时不用逗号分开。 非限制性定语从句和主句关系不很密切,只是对先 行词作些附加说明, 如果去掉,主句的意思仍然清楚。 这种从句, 写时往往逗号分开。 非限制性定语从句 形式上: 有逗号分开 意思上: 去掉后无影响 限制性定语从句 形式上: 无逗号 意思上: 不能省 11. I’ve read all the books ____ you gave me. 12. There is no difficulty ____ can’t be overcome in the world. 13.This is the first thing _______ I want to say. 14. He keeps a record of everything ____ he had seen there. 15. The TV play I watched last night is the best one _____ I have watched this year. (that) that (that) (that) (that) Now finish exercises 11--20 16.Tell us about the people and the places ____ are different from ours. 17. This is the very thing _______ I am after. 18. Any person _______ has the money can join the group. 19. Who is the person _____ is standing at the gate of Beijing Tourism Tower? 20. Which is the star _______ is nearest to the earth? that (that) that/who that that All _____ we need is to be supplied with food and clothing. A. what B. that C. which D. whom 2. The man_______talked to you just now is an engineer. A. who B. whose C. which D. what 单选 3. Can you tell me the name of the factory_____ you visited last week? A. what B. in where C. / D. when 4. I don’t like the way____ you speak to her. A. that B. in that C. who D. whose 5. She spent the whole evening talking about the things and persons____ none of us has ever heard of. A. which B. who C. whom D. that 6. Who is the person________ is talking about the accident ______ happened on Highway 104? A. which; which B. who; what C. that; that D. what; what 7. The most important thing____ we should pay attention to is the first thing ______ I have said. A. which; that B. that; which C. which; which D. that; that He who laughs last laughs best. All is well that ends well. Friendship is like health, the value of which is seldom known until it is lost. 真正的友谊犹如健康的身体,失去时方知其可贵。 谁笑到最后谁笑得最好。 结局好,一切都好。 Can you translate these proverbs into Chinese? who that which

    • 授课课件
    • 2019-02-19
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  • ID:4-5465278 2019年高考短文改错专题突破学案(4份打包)

    高中英语/知识点专区/短文改错/短文改错

    2018全国 卷1 During my last winter holiday, I went to countryside with my father to visit my grandparents. I find a big change there. The first time I went there, they were living in a small house with dogs, ducks, and another animals. Last winter when I went here again, they had a big separate house to raise dozens of chicken. They also had a small pond which they raised fish. My grandpa said last summer they earned quite a lot by sell the fish. I felt happily that their life had improved. At the end of our trip, I told my father that I planned to return for every two years, but he agreed. 2018全国卷2 When I was little, Friday’s night was our family game night. After supper, we would play card games of all sort in the sitting room. As the kid, I loved to watch cartoons, but no matter how many times I asked to watching them, my parents would not to let me. They would say to us that playing card games would help my brain. Still I unwilling to play the games for them sometimes. I didn’t realize how right my parents are until I entered high school. The games my parents taught me where I was a child turned out to be very useful later in my life. 2018全国卷3 It was Monday morning, and the writing class had just begin. Everyone was silent, wait to see who would be called upon to read his and her paragraph aloud. Some of us were confident and eager take part in the class activity; others were nervous and anxious. I had done myself homework, but I was shy. I was afraid that to speak in front of a larger group of people. At that moment, I remembered that my father once said, “The classroom is a place for learning and that include learning from textbooks, and mistake as well.” Immediate, I raised my hand. Practice: Group Work 1 (1)When I was a child, I hoped to live in the city. I think I would be happy there. (2)Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very serious problem. (3)We must found ways to protect your environment. (4) My dream school look like a big garden. (5)The understanding between two friends mean both of them have similar ideas and trusting each other. (6)Finally, there were a sudden pull at the pole and fish was caught. (7)The students as well as the teacher likes the film. (8) Many a student have this kind of phone. (9) Every man and every woman have such a good chance. Group Work 2 (1)The airs we breathe in is getting dirtier and dirtier. (2) One day , little Tony went to a shopping center with his parent. (3) A group of sheeps are eating grass and leaves at the foot of the hill. (4)The book will give you all the informations you need. (5) In their opinions, they should have more holidays. Group Work3 (1)Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very seriously problem. (2)Much rare animals are dying out. (3) I am awfully tiring. (4) I learned that I had to be more patient and little aggressive. (5)Unfortunate,there are too many people in my family. (6)I tried hardly to do it. Group Work4 (1)After looks at the toy for some time, he turned around and found where his parents were missing. (2)I enjoyed sit close to the windows and looking at the view. (3)We've been spending a lot of time sing in karaoke bars. (4) I also shared with my friends many photos taking in Beijing. (5) Mary, my best friend asked me to let her to copy my answers. (6)A woman saw him crying and telling him to wait outside the shop . Group Work5 (1)We appreciate our apologies and goodwill, but we hope that you can figure a good way of settling the matter (2)We took ours fishing poles and headed for the lake. (3) I will recommend it to any friend of me who is going to Beijing. (4) I knew that they would be worried about myself. Group Work6 (1) If you hear the alarm, stand in line at the door and wait your teacher to lead you outside.(四川卷) (2) Nearly five years ago, with the help by our father, my sister and I planted some cherry tomatoes(圣女果) in our back garden. (新课标I卷) (3). I am grateful that I got the chance to learn for him. (4). Soon they came up a good idea. (5). The woman was angry and said the man, “What are you doing, sir? What are you looking for? Group Work7 (1). Today I can still remember how I became good table tennis player. (2). But there was a man sitting beside her in a next seat. (3). Besides, Cleo tends to bark a average of six hours a day. (4). Now many girls prefer to marry a man who owns a house and a car. Therefore, I don't think love built on houses and cars is true love, and I doubt how long it will last. (5). On Monday, Li Ming was energetic but active in class. (6).“Should I choose a good major and a good university?" (7). They had expected to find a free place to live in, so they experienced a hard winter. Group Work8 Our English teacher begin to teach us in 2012. She had been teaching English for more than two year. She likes we, and she is very strict in all of us. Although she is a bit short and not so beautifully, but we consider her as our friend. She is really good teacher. We are love her very much. We're sure we'll get in well with each other. Group Work9 1.The house which Lu Xun once lived is being repaired now. 2. I'll never forget the day which I first went to school.  1.But it didn’t matter that I would win or not. 2.When people are playing games, they move a lot. That is how sports are good activities for their health. 1.He got up early in order to he could catch the first. 2. Make a mark which you have any doubts or questions. 1.As we climbed the mountains, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories. 2.I particularly enjoyed driving through the countryside with you and saw the changing colors of the leaves on the trees. 短文改错技巧与练习 答题方法 解题方法I 从词法和逻辑错误分析: II从句法的角度去分析: 三步 1. 通读全文, 理解文章. 2. 先易后难, 找出明错.3. 对照考点, 深入审读. 五 原则 1.以改变实词形式为原则.2.以单词形式变化最小为原则. 3.以添删或更换虚词为原则.4.以多“改正”少“添删”为原则. 5.以保持原意不变为原则. 四不改 1.标点符号不改。2.大小写不改。3.词序错误不改。4.单词拼写不改 检查原则: 1.句子各部分的结构是否完整,特别是每个句子要有动词。 2.谓语动词的时态,语态 3. 非谓语动词的用法 4.名词的单复数,格的使用是否正确 5.定冠词和不定冠词是否正确,是否有缺失 6. 代词的主宾格,单复数的使用是否有误 7. 定语从句中关系词是否有误 8. 并列连词,复合句中的从属连词用的是否得当。 短文改错不难做,首先解题要沉着。先看名词单复数,再看代词是否错。 动词时态是关键,过去现在须分辨,及物动词后有宾,不及宾前定有介。 副词修饰形副动,名词前面常用形,连词不能胡乱用,转折承接须分清。 固定搭配很重要,句意也须心中晓。牢记上述八大条,做起题来快又好。 见到谓语找主语,主谓一致找状语,见到名词想到数,可不可数要记住,见到平行看结构,形式功能要对称,见到代词找名词,指代通常有问题,见到介词看搭配,形副用得对不对。 平行结构是否一致,由and, or, but, either---or, neither---nor, not only---but also, as well as等并列连词和词组连接的结构可称为平行结构。平行结构在词性,时态,非谓语动词的形式上往往要求前后一致。 抓主语, 看谓语,主谓一致要分明; 同位关系看前者,定语从句找先行;倒装语序仔细寻,真假复数要辨清。 短文改错需注意? ?动词改错是重心 ?时态语态要一致 ?非谓语功能要分明 情态动词后接原形 ?固定搭配常积累 ?主谓一致要记心 ?其它错误再学习 。 短文改错要注意联系上下文和时态的变化,做题时应以句子为单位,同时兼顾改错的原则。这个原则就是不改变原意,不能轻易去掉动词,名词等实词,去掉的往往是固定搭配中多余的部分。同样,增加的词也是固定搭配中缺少的部分或者是定语从句的先行词或介词。 句中的时态,主谓,代词是否一致。句中的谓语是否完整。习惯用法固定搭配是否正确。冠词,形容词,副词及关系词是否得当。是否该用被动语态。从句中的连接词是否对了。从句的谓语是否完整。 一、动词形 1.动词的时态和语态错误. 2. 主、谓不一致的错误。3.非谓语动词形式的误用 。 (1)When I was a child, I hoped to live in the city. I think I would be happy there. (2)Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very serious problem. (3)We must found ways to protect your environment. (4)If they will give me some information, I will tell you. (5) My dream school look like a big garden. (6)The understanding between two friends mean both of them have similar ideas and trusting each other. (7)Finally, there were a sudden pull at the pole and fish was caught. (8)The students as well as the teacher likes the film (9)My favourite sport is football. I was member of our school football team. (10)Now my picture and prize is hanging in the library. 主谓一致特别提醒 就近原则 就远原则 Many a student have this kind of phone. Every man and every woman have such a good chance. 二、名词数 1.可数与不可数名词的混用。 2.可数名词的单复数的错用。 3.名词的格的误用 4.词性的转换 …so that I’ll get good marks in all my subject. 1) The airs we breathe in is getting dirtier and dirtier. (2) One day , little Tony went to a shopping center with his parent. (3) A group of sheeps are eating grass and leaves at the foot of the hill. (4)The book will give you all the informations you need. 可数名词单数形式不单独使用,要么用复数要么前面加冠词 单复数同形:fish; deer; sheep; means; Chinese; Japanese等 不可数:furniture ;fun;homework;paper;news;progress;trouble;advice; information; work(工作); equipment等 5) In their opinions, they should have more holidays. 记清一些用于固定词组中名词的特殊用法如: in one’s opinion keep one’s word take measures to do sth. take action to do sth. 三、区分形和副 形容词、副词、名词等词性的误用。 2.原级,比较级和最高级的误用。 (1)I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together. (2)Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very seriously problem. (3) Much rare animals are dying out. (4) I am awfully tiring. (5) I learned that I had to be more patient and little aggressive. 6)Unfortunate,there are too many people in my family. 7)I tried hardly to do it. 解决方案 1.在系动词(be;感官系动词;become; go; turn等)后要常用形容词做表语。修饰名词也好用形容词。 2.修饰动词,形容词或整个句子用副词 3.关注比较级和最高级的使用。 需要注意的是,形容词多用来做定、表、补语等,而副词只能在句子中作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子。第一例中的wonderful作定语修饰time,第二句的Unfortunately作状语修饰整个句子。 四、非谓动词细辨别 这是考查最多的错误形式之一。主要有分词和动名词类错误,也包括不定式类错误。 …in my spare time, but now I am interesting in football. Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also … My parents love me… and will do all they can make sure… (1)After looks at the toy for some time, he turned around and found where his parents were missing. (2)I enjoyed sit close to the windows and looking at the view. (3)We've been spending a lot of time sing in karaoke bars. (4) I also shared with my friends many photos taking in Bingjing. (5) Mary, my best friend asked me to let her to copy my answers 除了并列谓语的存在,一个句子只能有一个谓语动词,如出现其他动词就必需转化成非谓语。 to do done doing 五、 代词格,细领悟 1. 人称代词主格和宾格,物主代词的使用. 2.反身代词oneself?的使用. 3.不定代词的使用. 4.Both,all,either,neither,none的使用. 代词格的表格 1) We took ours fishing poles and headed for the lake. 2) I will recommend it to any friend of me who is going to Beijing. 3) I knew that they would be worried about myself. 六介词短语要牢记 主要考查介词短语和习惯用法的搭配。 1. If you hear the alarm, stand in line at the door and wait your teacher to lead you outside 2. Nearly five years ago, with the help by our father, my sister and I planted some cherry tomatoes(圣女果) in our back garden. 3. I am grateful that I got the chance to learn for him. 4. Soon they came up a good idea. 5.It was very kind for them to meet me at the railway station and… 6.We must keep in mind that we play for the team instead ourselves. _ 七、冠词、连词常光顾 1. 冠词a,an和the的错用或少用. 2.连词but,and,or, so,because, although, therefore, however的错用. 1. Today I can still remember how I became good table tennis player. 2. Besides, Cleo tends to bark a average of six hours a day. 3. On Monday, Li Ming was energetic but active in class. 4.“Should I choose a good major and a good university?" 5 he was smiling but nodding at me.(but?→ and) 6 It looks as if my parents treat me as a visitor and a guest.(and?→ or ) 7 We may be one family and live under a same roof.(a?→ the) Our English teacher begin to teach us in 2012. She had been teaching English for more than two year. She likes we, and she is very strict in all of us. Although she is a bit short and not so beautifully, but we consider her as our friend. She is really good teacher. We are love her very much. We're sure we'll get in well with each other. 1. 做题时应注意: 叙事性文章首抓___________,以免理解有误; 论述性文章首抓_________________错误 2.较好拿到分数的有:名词单复数/形容词副词/动词时态/代词 八.句子成分多分析 不同的句子成分要用不同的词类;不同的语景要选择不同的词语。这些都有待我们对句子结构和句子成分作细致的分析,才能找出用词不当的错误。例如: They eager to know everything about China and… I live in Beijing, where is the capital of China. 七、逻辑错误须关注 与句子的上、下文不一致,甚至相矛盾,属于逻辑性错误。如称谓上的张冠李戴,人名、地名、时间、方位等方面的错误,常是这类错误的考查对象。例如: 1.The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home. 2.First, let me tell you something more about myself. 3……no way of setting the matter except by selling the set. Now someone at home reads instead. 四、2016年高考短文改错 My uncle is the owner of a restaurant close to that I live. Though not very big, but the restaurant is popular in our area. It is always crowded with customers at meal times. Some people even had to wait outside. My uncle tells me that the key to his success is honest. Every day he makes sure that fresh vegetables or high quality oil are using for cooking. My uncle says that he never dreams becoming rich in the short period of time. Instead, he hopes that our business will grow steady. 2016?全国卷Ⅱ The summer holiday is coming. My Classmates and I are talking about how to do during the holiday. We can chose between staying at home and take a trip. If we stay at home, it is comfortable but there is no need to spend money. But in that case, we will learn little about world. If we go on a trip abroad, we can broaden your view and gain knowledges we cannot get from books. Some classmates suggest we can go to places of interest nearby. I thought that it is a good idea. It does not cost many, yet we can still learn a lot. 2016?全国卷Ⅲ The teenage year from 13 to 19 were the most difficult time for me. They were also the best and worse years in my life. At the first, I thought I knew everything and could make decisions by yourself. However, my parents didn't seem to think such. They always tell me what to do and how to do it. At one time, I even felt my parents couldn't understand me so I hoped I could be freely from them. I showed them I was independent by wear strange clothes. Now I am leaving home to college. At last, I will be on my own, but I still want to have my parents to turn to whenever need help. 2018全国卷2 When I was little, Friday’s night was our family game night. After supper, we would play card games of all sort in the sitting room. As the kid, I loved to watch cartoons, but no matter how many times I asked to watching them, my parents would not to let me. They would say to us that playing card games would help my brain. Still I unwilling to play the games for them sometimes. I didn’t realize how right my parents are until I entered high school. The games my parents taught me where I was a child turned out to be very useful later in my life. 2018全国卷3 It was Monday morning, and the writing class had just begin. Everyone was silent, wait to see who would be called upon to read his and her paragraph aloud. Some of us were confident and eager take part in the class activity; others were nervous and anxious. I had done myself homework, but I was shy. I was afraid that to speak in front of a larger group of people. At that moment, I remembered that my father once said, “The classroom is a place for learning and that include learning from textbooks, and mistake as well.” Immediate, I raised my hand. ( 5 ) 短文改错练习 答题方法 解题方法I 从词法和逻辑错误分析: II从句法的角度去分析: 三步 1. 通读全文, 理解文章. 2. 先易后难, 找出明错.3. 对照考点, 深入审读. 五 原则 1.以改变实词形式为原则.2.以单词形式变化最小为原则. 3.以添删或更换虚词为原则.4.以多“改正”少“添删”为原则. 5.以保持原意不变为原则. 四不改 1.标点符号不改。2.大小写不改。3.词序错误不改。4.单词拼写不改 检查原则: 1.句子各部分的结构是否完整,特别是每个句子要有动词。 2.谓语动词的时态,语态 3. 非谓语动词的用法 4.名词的单复数,格的使用是否正确 5.定冠词和不定冠词是否正确,是否有缺失 6. 代词的主宾格,单复数的使用是否有误 7. 定语从句中关系词是否有误 8. 并列连词,复合句中的从属连词用的是否得当。 错误类型 ①谓语动词 ②名词 ③连词and, but, so, or等 ④冠词 ⑤形容词和副词 ⑥代词 ⑦非谓语动词 ⑧介词 名词考虑单复数,冠词关注“错”“多”“少”, 动词时态和语态,非谓搭配莫错了,连、代、形、副错一样,多是故意来混淆,介词多半考搭配,多、漏、误用想周到,句法涉及“一致”法,从句多考关联词,语法、句法均未错,行文逻辑去寻找。 短文改错不难做,首先解题要沉着。先看名词单复数,再看代词是否错。 动词时态是关键,过去现在须分辨,及物动词后有宾,不及宾前定有介。 副词修饰形副动,名词前面常用形,连词不能胡乱用,转折承接须分清。 固定搭配很重要,句意也须心中晓。牢记上述八大条,做起题来快又好。 见到谓语找主语,主谓一致找状语,见到名词想到数,可不可数要记住,见到平行看结构,形式功能要对称,见到代词找名词,指代通常有问题,见到介词看搭配,形副用得对不对。 平行结构是否一致,由and, or, but, either---or, neither---nor, not only---but also, as well as等并列连词和词组连接的结构可称为平行结构。平行结构在词性,时态,非谓语动词的形式上往往要求前后一致。 抓主语, 看谓语,主谓一致要分明; 同位关系看前者,定语从句找先行;倒装语序仔细寻,真假复数要辨清。 短文改错需注意? ?动词改错是重心 ?时态语态要一致 ?非谓语功能要分明 情态动词后接原形 ?固定搭配常积累 ?主谓一致要记心 ?其它错误再学习 Modern people know---have better food, and to live in cleaner surroundings. 把to删除。 短文改错要注意联系上下文和时态的变化,做题时应以句子为单位,同时兼顾改错的原则。这个原则就是不改变原意,不能轻易去掉动词,名词等实词,去掉的往往是固定搭配中多余的部分。同样,增加的词也是固定搭配中缺少的部分或者是定语从句的先行词或介词。 句中的时态,主谓,代词是否一致。句中的谓语是否完整。习惯用法固定搭配是否正确。冠词,形容词,副词及关系词是否得当。是否该用被动语态。从句中的连接词是否对了。从句的谓语是否完整。 一、动词形 1.动词的时态和语态错误. 2. 主、谓不一致的错误。 3.非谓语动词形式的误用 。 (1)When I was a child, I hoped to live in the city. I think I would be happy there. (2)Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very serious problem. (3)We must found ways to protect your environment. (4)If they will give me some information, I will tell you. (5) My dream school look like a big garden. (6)The understanding between two friends mean both of them have similar ideas and trusting each other. (7)Finally, there were a sudden pull at the pole and fish was caught. (8)The students as well as the teacher likes the film (9)My favourite sport is football. I was member of our school football team. (10)Now my picture and prize is hanging in the library. 主谓一致特别提醒 就近原则there be…; or; either…or…; neither…nor…; not (only)…but (also)…; 就远原则as well as; together with; with; rather than; like; but…. Many a student have this kind of phone. Every man and every woman have such a good chance. 主语有every; many a; each或no 修饰或被这些词修饰的并列成分做主语谓语用单 二、名词数 1.可数与不可数名词的混用。 2.可数名词的单复数的错用。 3.名词的格的误用 4.词性的转换 …so that I’ll get good marks in all my subject. 1) The airs we breathe in is getting dirtier and dirtier. (2) One day , little Tony went to a shopping center with his parent. (3) A group of sheeps are eating grass and leaves at the foot of the hill. (4)The book will give you all the informations you need. 可数名词单数形式不单独使用,要么用复数要么前面加冠词 单复数同形:fish; deer; sheep; means; Chinese; Japanese等 不可数:furniture ;fun;homework;paper;news;progress;trouble;advice; information; work(工作); equipment等 5) In their opinions, they should have more holidays. 记清一些用于固定词组中名词的特殊用法如: in one’s opinion keep one’s word take measures to do sth. take action to do sth. 三、区分形和副 形容词、副词、名词等词性的误用。 2.原级,比较级和最高级的误用。 I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together. (1)Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very seriously problem. (2) Much rare animals are dying out. (3) I am awfully tiring. (4) I learned that I had to be more patient and little aggressive. 5)Unfortunate,there are too many people in my family. 6)I tried hardly to do it. 注意fortunately,luckily,obviously,naturally,interestingly 解决方案 1.在系动词(be;感官系动词;become; go; turn等)后要常用形容词做表语。修饰名词也用形容词。 2.修饰动词,形容词或整个句子用副词 3.关注比较级和最高级的使用。 需要注意的是,形容词多用来做定、表、补语等,而副词只能在句子中作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子。第一例中的wonderful作定语修饰time,第二句的Unfortunately作状语修饰整个句子。 四、非谓动词细辨别 这是考查最多的错误形式之一。主要有分词和动名词类错误,也包括不定式类错误。例如: …in my spare time, but now I am interesting in football. interested Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also … playing My parents love me… and will do all they can ∧ make sure… to 上述二、三例分别是动名词作主语,和不定式作目的状语。一般的,现在分词有主动态和进行时的含义,而过去分词具有被动态和完成时的含义,不定式有将来时态的含义。 1)After looks at the toy for some time, he turned around and found where his parents were missing. (2)I enjoyed sit close to the windows and looking at the view. (3)We've been spending a lot of time sing in karaoke bars. (4) I also shared with my friends many photos taking in Bingjing. (5) Mary, my best friend asked me to let her to copy my answers 除了并列谓语的存在,一个句子只能有一个谓语动词,如出现其他动词就必需转化成非谓语。 to do 表将来的主动动作。 done 被动,完成 doing 主动,进行 五、 代词格,细领悟 1. 人称代词主格和宾格,物主代词的使用. 2.反身代词oneself?的使用. 3.不定代词的使用. 4.Both,all,either,neither,none的使用. 代词格的表格 1) We took ours fishing poles and headed for the lake. 2) I will recommend it to any friend of me who is going to Beijing. 3) I knew that they would be worried about myself. 六介词短语要牢记 主要考查介词短语和习惯用法的搭配。 1. If you hear the alarm, stand in line at the door and wait your teacher to lead you outside 2. Nearly five years ago, with the help by our father, my sister and I planted some cherry tomatoes(圣女果) in our back garden. 3. I am grateful that I got the chance to learn for him. 4. Soon they came up a good idea. 5.It was very kind for them to meet me at the railway station and… of 6.We must keep in mind that we play for the team instead ∧ ourselves. of__ 七、冠词、连词常光顾 1. 冠词a,an和the的错用或少用. 2.连词but,and,or, so,because, although, therefore, however的错用. 1. Today I can still remember how I became good table tennis player. 2. Besides, Cleo tends to bark a average of six hours a day. 3. On Monday, Li Ming was energetic but active in class. 4.“Should I choose a good major and a good university?" 5 he was smiling but nodding at me.(but?→ and) 6 It looks as if my parents treat me as a visitor and a guest.(and?→ or ) 7 We may be one family and live under a same roof.(a?→ the) Our English teacher begin to teach us in 2012. She had been teaching English for more than two year. She likes we, and she is very strict in all of us. Although she is a bit short and not so beautifully, but we consider her as our friend. She is really good teacher. We are love her very much. We're sure we'll get in well with each other. 1. 做题时应注意: 叙事性文章首抓时态,以免理解有误; 论述性文章首抓名词形容词冠词代词错误 2.较好拿到分数的有:名词单复数/形容词副词/动词时态/代词 八.句子成分多分析 不同的句子成分要用不同的词类;不同的语景要选择不同的词语。这些都有待我们对句子结构和句子成分作细致的分析,才能找出用词不当的错误。例如: They ∧eager to know everything about China and… were I live in Beijing, where is the capital of China. which 七、逻辑错误须关注 与句子的上、下文不一致,甚至相矛盾,属于逻辑性错误。如称谓上的张冠李戴,人名、地名、时间、方位等方面的错误,常是这类错误的考查对象。例如: 1.The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home. their 2.First, let me tell you something more about myself. 去掉more 3……no way of setting the matter except by selling the set. Now someone at home reads instead. everyone 四、2016年高考短文改错 My uncle is the owner of a restaurant close to that I live. Though not very big, but the restaurant is popular in our area. It is always crowded with customers at meal times. Some people even had to wait outside. My uncle tells me that the key to his success is honest. Every day he makes sure that fresh vegetables or high quality oil are using for cooking. My uncle says that he never dreams becoming rich in the short period of time. Instead, he hopes that our business will grow steady. 2016?全国卷Ⅱ The summer holiday is coming. My Classmates and I are talking about how to do during the holiday. We can chose between staying at home and take a trip. If we stay at home, it is comfortable but there is no need to spend money. But in that case, we will learn little about world. If we go on a trip abroad, we can broaden your view and gain knowledges we cannot get from books. Some classmates suggest we can go to places of interest nearby. I thought that it is a good idea. It does not cost many, yet we can still learn a lot. 2016?全国卷Ⅲ The teenage year from 13 to 19 were the most difficult time for me. They were also the best and worse years in my life. At the first, I thought I knew everything and could make decisions by yourself. However, my parents didn't seem to think such. They always tell me what to do and how to do it. At one time, I even felt my parents couldn't understand me so I hoped I could be freely from them. I showed them I was independent by wear strange clothes. Now I am leaving home to college. At last, I will be on my own, but I still want to have my parents to turn to whenever need help. 2018全国 卷1 During my last winter holiday, I went to countryside with my father to visit my grandparents. I find a big change there. The first time I went there, they were living in a small house with dogs, ducks, and another animals. Last winter when I went here again, they had a big separate house to raise dozens of chicken. They also had a small pond which they raised fish. My grandpa said last summer they earned quite a lot by sell the fish. I felt happily that their life had improved. At the end of our trip, I told my father that I planned to return for every two years, but he agreed. 2018全国卷2 When I was little, Friday’s night was our family game night. After supper, we would play card games of all sort in the sitting room. As the kid, I loved to watch cartoons, but no matter how many times I asked to watching them, my parents would not to let me. They would say to us that playing card games would help my brain. Still I unwilling to play the games for them sometimes. I didn’t realize how right my parents are until I entered high school. The games my parents taught me where I was a child turned out to be very useful later in my life. 2018全国卷3 It was Monday morning, and the writing class had just begin. Everyone was silent, wait to see who would be called upon to read his and her paragraph aloud. Some of us were confident and eager take part in the class activity; others were nervous and anxious. I had done myself homework, but I was shy. I was afraid that to speak in front of a larger group of people. At that moment, I remembered that my father once said, “The classroom is a place for learning and that include learning from textbooks, and mistake as well.” Immediate, I raised my hand. Group Work 1 (1)When I was a child, I hoped to live in the city. I think I would be happy there. (2)Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very serious problem. (3)We must found ways to protect your environment. (4) My dream school look like a big garden. (5)The understanding between two friends mean both of them have similar ideas and trusting each other. (6)Finally, there were a sudden pull at the pole and fish was caught. (7)The students as well as the teacher likes the film. (8) Many a student have this kind of phone. (9) Every man and every woman have such a good chance. Group Work 2 (1)The airs we breathe in is getting dirtier and dirtier. (2) One day , little Tony went to a shopping center with his parent. (3) A group of sheeps are eating grass and leaves at the foot of the hill. (4)The book will give you all the informations you need. (5) In their opinions, they should have more holidays. Group Work3 (1)Lots of studies have been shown that global warming has already become a very seriously problem. (2)Much rare animals are dying out. (3) I am awfully tiring. (4) I learned that I had to be more patient and little aggressive. (5)Unfortunate,there are too many people in my family. (6)I tried hardly to do it. Group Work4 (1)After looks at the toy for some time, he turned around and found where his parents were missing. (2)I enjoyed sit close to the windows and looking at the view. (3)We've been spending a lot of time sing in karaoke bars. (4) I also shared with my friends many photos taking in Beijing. (5) Mary, my best friend asked me to let her to copy my answers. (6)A woman saw him crying and telling him to wait outside the shop . Group Work5 (1)We appreciate our apologies and goodwill, but we hope that you can figure a good way of settling the matter (2)We took ours fishing poles and headed for the lake. (3) I will recommend it to any friend of me who is going to Beijing. (4) I knew that they would be worried about myself. Group Work6 (1) If you hear the alarm, stand in line at the door and wait your teacher to lead you outside.(四川卷) (2) Nearly five years ago, with the help by our father, my sister and I planted some cherry tomatoes(圣女果) in our back garden. (新课标I卷) (3). I am grateful that I got the chance to learn for him. (4). Soon they came up a good idea. (5). The woman was angry and said the man, “What are you doing, sir? What are you looking for? Group Work7 (1). Today I can still remember how I became good table tennis player. (2). But there was a man sitting beside her in a next seat. (3). Besides, Cleo tends to bark a average of six hours a day. (4). Now many girls prefer to marry a man who owns a house and a car. Therefore, I don't think love built on houses and cars is true love, and I doubt how long it will last. (5). On Monday, Li Ming was energetic but active in class. (6).“Should I choose a good major and a good university?" (7). They had expected to find a free place to live in, so they experienced a hard winter. Group Work8 Our English teacher begin to teach us in 2012. She had been teaching English for more than two year. She likes we, and she is very strict in all of us. Although she is a bit short and not so beautifully, but we consider her as our friend. She is really good teacher. We are love her very much. We're sure we'll get in well with each other. Group Work9 1.The house which Lu Xun once lived is being repaired now. 2. I'll never forget the day which I first went to school.  1.But it didn’t matter that I would win or not. 2.When people are playing games, they move a lot. That is how sports are good activities for their health. 1.He got up early in order to he could catch the first. 2. Make a mark which you have any doubts or questions. 1.As we climbed the mountains, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories. 2.I particularly enjoyed driving through the countryside with you and saw the changing colors of the leaves on the trees. 参考答案 2016?全国卷Ⅰ 1.?第一句:that → where 2.?第二句:去掉but 3.?第四句:had → have 4.?第五句:honest→ honesty 5.?第六句:or → and 6.?第六句:using → used 7.?第七句:dreams?∧?of 8.?第七句:the → a 9.?第八句:our → his 10.?第八句:steady → steadily 2016?全国卷Ⅱ 1.?第二句:how → what 2.?第三句:chose?→ choose 3.?第三句:take → taking 4.?第四句:but → and 5.?第五句:about?∧?the 6.?第六句:your → our 7.?第六句:knowledges → knowledge 8.?第七句:can → should?或去掉can 9.?第八句:thought → think 10.?第九句:many → much 2016?全国卷Ⅲ 1.?第一句:year → years 2.?第二句:worse → worst 3.?第三句:去掉the 4.?第三句:yourself → myself 5.?第四句:such → so 6.?第五句:tell → told 7.?第六句:freely → free 8.?第七句:wear → wearing 9.?第八句:to → for 10.?第九句:whenever?∧?I ( 4 ) Proof Reading 短文改错 一.常考的考点: (1)冠词 (2)谓语动词形 (3)非谓语 (4)名词数(5)形容词、副词 (6)代词 (7)介词和固定搭配 (8)复合句连词、疑问词 (9)逻辑 二、新高考短文改错应试策略及答题原则 三步:1. 通读全文, 理解文章. 2. 先易后难, 找出明错. 3. 对照考点, 深入审读. 五原则:1.以改变实词形式为原则. 2.以单词形式变化最小为原则. 3.以添删或更换虚词为原则. 4.以多“改正”少“添删”为原则. 5.以保持原意不变为原则. 四不改:1.标点符号不改。2.大小写不改。3.词序错误不改。 4.单词拼写不改 。(文中出现带汉语注释的词,在句中不可能用错。) 三、解 题方法: (1) 从词法和逻辑错误分析: (2)从句法的角度去分析: 短文改错口诀: 动词形,名词数;还要注意形和副; 非谓语,细辨别;句子成份多分析; 代词格,细领悟 ;介词短语要牢记; 冠词连词常光顾;逻辑错误须关注。 四、常考知识积累 (一)动词形1.动词的时态和语态错误. 2. 主、谓不一致的错误。 3.非谓语动词形式的误用 。 (1).在含有时间、条件状语从句的复合句中, 主句用将来时态,从句中则用一般现在时态。(主将从现) (2)动名词,不定式或从句做主语谓语动词用单数。 (3)主谓一致特别提醒 (4)就近原则there be…; or; either…or…; neither…nor…; not (only)…but (also)…; (5)就远原则as well as; together with; with; rather than; like; but…. (6)主语有every; many a; each或no 修饰或被这些词修饰的并列成分做主语谓语用单数。 二、名词数 1.可数与不可数名词的混用。 2.可数名词的单复数的错用。 3.名词的格的误用。 4.词性的转换 。 (1)可数名词单数形式不单独使用,要么用复数要么前面加冠词 (2)单复数同形:fish; deer; sheep; means; Chinese; Japanese等 (3)不可数名词:furniture ;fun;homework;paper;news;progress;trouble;advice; information; work(工作); equipment等 (4)记清一些用于固定词组中名词的特殊用法如: in one’s opinion依某人看keep one’s word遵守诺言;守信 take measures to do sth采取措施做某事take action to do sth采取行动做某事 三、还要注意形和副. 1.形容词、副词、名词等词性的误用。 2.原级,比较级和最高级的误用 解决方案(1)在系动词(be;感官系动词;become; go; turn等)后要常用形容词做表语。修饰名词也用形容词。(2)修饰动词,形容词或整个句子用副词(3)关注比较级和最高级的使用。 四、非谓语,细辨别 除了并列谓语的存在,一个句子只能有一个谓语动词,如出现其他动词就必需转化成非谓语。to do 表将来的主动动作。done 被动,完成doing 主动,进行 五、 代词格,细领悟六、介词短语要牢记主要考查介词短语和习惯用法的搭配。 七、冠词、连词常光顾1. 冠词a, an和the的错用或少用. 2.连词but, and,or, so, because, although, therefore, however的错用. 八、从句法的角度去分析: 1. 定语从句2. 名词性从句3. 状语从句4. 句式结构

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  • ID:4-5416680 高中英语虚拟语气归纳及练习题 (无答案)

    高中英语/知识点专区/语法/虚拟语气与情态动词

    虚拟语气 一、语气(Mood)的定义和种类 l、语气:是动词的一种形式,它表示说话人对某一行为或事情的看法和态度。 2、语气的种类: (1)陈述语气: 表示动作或状态是现实的、确定的或符合事实的,用于陈述句、疑问句和某些感叹句。如: We don’t have dinner in that restaurant. What an adorable baby it is! (2)祈使语气: 表示说话人的建议、请求、邀请、命令等。如: Open the window, please. Take care of your suitcase. (3)虚拟语气: 表示动作或状态不是客观存在的事实,而是说话人的主观愿望、假设或推测等。如: If I were you, I should study English well. May you succeed! 二、虚拟语气在条件从句中的用法 条件句有两类,一类是真实条件句,一类是虚拟条件句。如果假设的情况是有可能发生的,就是真实条件句。在这种真实条件句中的谓语用陈述语气。如: If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will climb the mountain. 如果明天不下雨,我们就去爬山。 如果假设的情况是过去或现在都不存在的,或将来不大可能发生的,则是虚拟条件句。如: If he had seen you yesterday, he would have told you about that. 如果他昨天见到你,他会告诉你那件事的。 在含有虚拟条件句的复合句中,主句和从句的谓语都要用虚拟语气。列表如下: 从句 主句 例句 与现在事实相反的假设 If + 主语+助动词的过去式(were, did, had) 主语+ should/would/could/might+动词原形 If I had time, I would attend the meeting. If I were you, I should seize the opportunity to go abroad. 与过去事实相反的假设 If +主语+had+过去分词 主语+should/would/could/might +have+过去分词 If you had taken my advice, you would not have failed in the exam. 与将来事实相反的假设 If+主语+动词过去式 If+主语+were to+动词原形 If+主语+should+动词原形(注意不能是would) 主语+ should/would/could/might+动词原形 If you came tomorrow, we would have the meeting. If it were to rain tomorrow, we would put off the sports meeting. If he should not come tomorrow, we should put off the meeting till next Monday. 1、表示与现在事实相反的假设和结果。如: If my brother were here, everything would be all right. 要是我哥哥在这儿 ,一切都没问题了。 2、表示与过去事实相反的假设和结果。如: If you had taken my advice,you wouldn't (couldn’t) have failed in the exam. 如果你按照我的建议去做,你一定不会(不可能)考试不及格。 3、表示与将来事实可能相反的假设和结果。如: If it were Sunday tomorrow, I should (would,could,might) go to see my grandmother. 如果明天是星期天,我就(可能)去看望我奶奶。 If it were to snow this evening, they would not go out. 如果今晚下雪,他们将不出去了。 4、有时条件从句中的动作和主句中的动作发生的时间不一致(表示错综时间的虚拟语气),这时动词的形式要根据它所表示的时间加以调整。例如: If you had listened to the doctor, you would be all right now. 如果你当初听了医生的话,身体现在就好了。If?you?had?gone?to?bed?early?last?night,?you?would?not?be?so?sleepy?now. 5、虚拟条件句可以转换成下列形式 (1)省略连词if,构成主谓倒装。 在书面语中,如果虚拟条件从句中有were,had或should,可以把if省略,把这几个词放到主语之前,构成主谓倒装。例如: Should he come (If he should come), tell him to call me back. Were I you (If I were you), I would not miss the plane. (2)用介词短语代替条件状语从句。如: Without air (If there were not air), there would be no living things. 如果没有空气的话,就不会有生物了。 But for your help (If it hadn’t been for your help), I couldn’t have done it. 要是没有你的帮助,我就不可能完成这件事。 I was busy that day. Otherwise I would have gone there with them. 我那天很忙,否则,我就和他们一起去那儿了。 I would have finished the work, but I have been ill. 我本来该完成这项工作的,但我生病了。 6、省去条件从句或主句:表示虚拟语气的主句或从句有时可以省略,但其含义仍可以推知。 (1)省去条件从句。 如: You could have washed your clothes yourself. 你本可以自已洗衣服的。 省去了"If you had wanted to", (事实是:你自己没洗衣服,因为你不想洗) (2)省去主句(常用以表示愿望)。如: If my grandmother were with me! 如果我的祖母与我在一起多好啊! If only she had not left! 如果她没走就好了! 三、虚拟语气的其他用法 l、虚拟语气在主语从句中的用法: 在"It is important (strange,natural,necessary)that…"这类句型里,that所引导的主语从句中的谓语动词常用 “should十动词原形”结构,表示某事是"重要"、"奇怪"、"自然"、"必要"等意义。如: It?is?suggested?that?pupils?(should)?wear?school?uniforms. It is important that every member (should) obey these rules. 重要的是每个成员都应该遵守这些规则。 2、虚拟语气在宾语从句中用法: (1)wish后的宾语从句: 表示与现在事实相反的愿望,从句谓语用一般过去时或过去进行时; 表示与过去相反的愿望,从句谓语用过去完成时:"had十过去分词";? 表示将来没有把握或不太可能实现的主观愿望,常用“would (could)+动词原形”。 I wish I knew the answer to the question. I wish (wished) I hadn’t spent so much money. I wish it would stop raining. 但愿雨能停止; I wish you would come soon. 但愿你立刻来。 在具有愿望、请求、建议、命令等主观意愿的动词(如:desire,?demand,?advice,?insist,?require,?suggest,?propose,?order,?recommend,?decide?…)后的宾语从句中需用虚拟语气。谓语动词用“should+动词原形”。值得注意的是,如果宾语从句的动词是否定的,否定词not的位置应在动词之前,而不是动词之后。如: I demand that he (should) answer me immediately. 我要求他立刻答复我。 【注意】 suggest意为“表明,暗示”时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。 His pale face suggested that he was in poor health. (2)insist意为“坚持认为,坚持说”时,宾语从句不用虚拟语气。 He insisted that he did not murder his wife. 3、虚拟语气在状语从句中的用法 (1)在带有even if/ even though引导的让步状语从句的主从复合句中,主句和从句都用虚拟语气,动词形式与含有非真实条件句的虚拟语气相同。如: Even if he had been ill, he would have gone to his office. 即使生了病,他得去办公室。 (2)由as if或as though引导的状语从句表示比较或方式时。从句谓语形式为动词的过去式(be用were)或 “had十过去分词”。如: He treated me as if I were a stranger. 他那样对待我,好像我是陌生人似的。 She talked about the film as if she had really seen it. 她谈论那部影片,就好像她确实看过一样。 注:如果表示的事情可能会发生,那么方式状语从句中的谓语动词可用陈述语气。 表语从句中的应用? 上述动词相应的名词形式作主语+连系动词构成表语从句,要用虚拟语气,即“should+动词原形”.常用名词形式有:advice,?decision,?demand,?proposal,?request,?order,?suggestion His suggestion was that the meeting (should) be delayed. 虚拟语气在定语从句中的用法:在"It is time (that) …"句型中,定语从句的谓语动词常用虚拟语气表示将来,动词形式一般用过去式,意思是"该干某事的时候了"。如: It’s (high) time we did our homework. 我们该做作业了。 6、虚拟语气在简单句中的用法 (1)情态动词的过去式用于现在时态时,表示说话人的谦虚、客气、有礼貌,或委婉的语气,常见于日常会话中。如: It would be better for you not to stay up too late. 你最好别太晚睡觉。 (2)在一些习惯表达中。如: I would rather not tell you. 我宁愿不告诉你。 (3)用“may + 动词原形”表示"祝愿"、"但愿”,此时may须置于句首(多用于正式文体中)。如: May you be happy!祝你快乐!May good luck be yours.祝你顺利。 补充: 1.在if only感叹句中,表示“但愿”,“要是……就好了”用法和wish基本相同,只是比wish具有更强烈的感情色彩。 If only the rain would stop. (对将来的虚拟)但愿雨能停。 If only I had followed your advice! (对过去的虚拟)要是我听从了你的建议就好了! 2.由下列名词或短语引导,或含有某些词的从句中应用的虚拟语气   1)lest “以免、惟恐”引导的从句用“should+动词原形”。   He took a map with him lest he (should ) lose his wag there.   2)whether “不管、无论”引导的让步状语从句,有时用动词原形。   All things, whether you know or don’t know, exist in the world. 3)用“would rather/had rather"表示“宁愿、但愿”,后面的宾语从句谓语用过去式或动词原形表示对将来的要求,用过去时表示对现在的愿望,用过去完成时表示对过去做的事的懊悔。 I would rather you go tomorrow. I would rather everything hadn’t happened in the past. 3.“情态动词+have?done”的用法?: must?have?done表示对过去事情的肯定推测。? can't?/?couldn't?have?done表示对过去所发生的事情所做的否定推测。? may?have?done表示过去所发生的事情作可能性推测。? might?/?could?have?done表示对过去所发生的事情作可能性推测,或者表示本来可以做而事实上未做的事情。? should?/?ought?to?have?done表示本应该做的事情而事实上未做 needn't?have?done表示做了本不应该做的事情。 巩固练习: 1. We demanded that we _______ of any change in the plan. A. informed B. would be informed C. be informed D. had been informed 2. It’s necessary that he _______ a recognized qualification. A. has B. have C. had D. having 3. It's high time we ______ our attention to this problem. A. turned B. turn C. had turned D. would turn 4. If only you __________ him what I said!? Everything would have been all right. A. didn't told B. hadn't told C. would not tell D. would have not told 5. He must have had an accident, or he_______ here then. A. would have been B. had been C. should have been D. could be 6. You ________ to town to see the film last week. It will be on TV tomorrow. A. needn't go B. should not go C. had better not go D. needn't have gone 7. How I wish every family ___ a large house with a beautiful garden! A. has B. had C. will have D. had had 8. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it ________. A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken 9. Jane’s pale face suggested that she ___ ill, and her parents suggested that she _____ a medical examination. A. be, should have B. was, have C. should be, had D. was, has 10. The bus driver insisted that he _____ at normal speed and therefore _____ for the child’s death. A. drive, not answer B. was driving, shouldn’t answer C. should drive, shouldn’t have answered D. drove, shouldn’t answer 改错练习: One day my uncle had been riding a horse in rain when he reached a small restaurant. Wet and coldly, and he wanted to warm himself very much. However, the restaurant was too crowded with people that he could not get near the fire. “Taking some fish to my horse!” he called out to the waiter. “Sorry, sir. But a horse didn’t eat fish!” the waiter answered. “Never mind, just do as I tell you,” my uncle said. The crowd of people felt surprising at the strange order. To see a horse eat fish, all of whom ran out. Having the whole room to himself, my uncle sat down besides the fire and began warm himself.

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  • ID:4-5416652 高中英语情态动词用法总结课件(35张)

    高中英语/知识点专区/语法/虚拟语气与情态动词

    情态动词的语法特征 1)情态动词表说话人的某种感情或语气,对某一动作或状态的某种态度。 2) 情态动词不能单独做谓语, 后面只能接动词原形,ought to和have to除外,。 3) 情态动词没有人称, 数的变化, 但有些情态动词, 如can、will、have to、may等有过去式。 1) Some of us can use the computer now, but we couldn’t last year. 2) Can she be in the computer center? 3) I though what he said could not be true. 4) Can/Could I use your dictionary? 5) Could you lend me a hand? 1.表能力,意为“能,能够”,can指现在,could指过去。 3. 表示“请求” “允许”(表请求时,口语中常用 could 代替 can 使语气更委婉,回答时用can) 2. 表示推测,意为“可能”“或许”,用于疑问句或否定句,can’t和couldn’t意为“不可能”。 1. can 与could 4. can 用于疑问句或否定句中时,表惊异、 不相信等,意思是“可能、能够”。 6) How can you believe such a liar like him? 5. can’t/ couldn’t have done 表示对过去情况的否定推测,意为“过去不可能做过某事” 7) Susan can’t have written a report like this. 8) She can’t have gone to school, it is Sunday . 6. can/could have done表对过去的推测,意为“过去可能做了某事”。 could have done还可以表示对过去能做而未做的事情感到惋惜,意为“本能够做某事可事实上未做” 9)It’s a pity. Your class could have got the first prize. 10)Where can Mary have gone? can表示“能够”时与短语be able to同义,但can只用于一般现在时或过去时,而后者可用于各种时态。另外,can表示个人有某种能力,而be able to表示某人通过努力、克服困难做成某事,相当于succeed in doing sth.; can/be able to Michael ____ be a policeman, for he’s much too short. A. needn’t B. can’t C. should D. may 2. Mr. Bush is on time for everything. How ____ it be that he was late for the opening ceremony? A. can B. should C. may D. must 3. ---- I stayed at a hotel while in New York. ---- Oh, did you? You ____ with Barbara. A. could have stayed B. could stay C. would stay D. must have stayed My sister met him at the Grand Theater yesterday afternoon, so he ____ your lecture. A. couldn’t have attended B. needn’t have attended C. mustn’t have attended D. shouldn’t have attended B A A A 5. There’s someone outside. Who ____it be? A. can B. need C. may D. must 6. ----Is Jack on duty today? ----It ____ be him. It’s his turn tomorrow. A. mustn’t B. won’t C. can’t D. needn’t 7. It is usually warm in my hometown, but it ____be rather cold sometimes. A. can B. need C. dare D. must 8. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly, but everyone _______ get away. A. were able to B. would C. was able to D. could A C A C 2. may 与might 1. 表示“许可”或“请求”,有“可以”的意思,口语中 常用 might 代 may ,表示委婉语气。 否定回答时用“must not”表“禁止,阻止”, 不用 “may not”. “may not” 表示“可能不” 。 Eg: 1)--- May I watch TV after supper? --- Yes, you may. / No, you mustn’t. 2) Today is Sunday. She may not in her office now. 2. 表示可能性。 意为“或许,可能” might 比 may 可能性小。 Eg: 1) The girl might be sleeping this time of day. 2) They may be in the library now. 4. may/ might as well + 动词原形 “…还是…的好” “不妨干某事” Eg: You may as well go and have a look. 3.may/might have done 表示对过去发生过的事情的推测,意为“可能已经做过某事” Eg: I can’t find my sunglasses. I may/might have left them in your office. 1.Sorry I'm late. I _____ have turned off the alarm clock and gone back to sleep again. A. might B. should  C. can D. will 2.Peter _____ come with us tonight, but he isn’t very sure yet.   A. must B. may C. can D. will A B 3. will 与would 1. 用于第二人称的疑问句中,表“请求、建议”等,用 would 比用will 委婉,客气些 Eg: 1)Will you lend me your book? 2) Would you like a cup of tea? 2. 用于表示意志或意愿,意为“会,愿意” 。will 指现在,而 would 指 过去。用于否定句中,表示“不会、不肯、不乐意”。 Eg: 1) I won’t do that again. 2) They said that they would help us. 3) No matter what I said, he won’t listen to me. 3.表示习惯性动作。 译作 “总是、惯于”, will 指现在常常,would 指过去常常。 Eg: 1)This man is strange. He will sit for hours without saying anything. 2) Mary will keep asking some silly questions. 3) Every evening, she would sit by window, deep in thought. 4) We would sit around Grandpa after supper, listening to his stories. If you ____ wait here for another 5 minutes, our manager will come back. A. should B. will C. need D. must 2. When he was there, he______ go to that coffee shop at the corner after work every day. A. would B. should C. had better D. might B A 4. should与ought to 1. ought to比should语气更重。两者都用于表劝告、建议。 意为”应该、应当”。但在疑问句中常用should。ought to的否定式为oughtn’t to或ought not to。 Eg: I should help her because she is in trouble. You ought to take care of the baby. Should I open the window? What should we do next? 2. 两者都可表示推测,表示很大的可能性。意为 “可能、按理该…” Eg: 1) It’s 7 o’clock, he should be at home. 2) They should have arrived by now. 3. ought to/should have done 本应该干某事可事实未干 oughtn’t to/shouldn’t have done本不该干某事可事实 却干了 Eg: You should have invited me to the party yesterday. You are right. I Should have thought of that. You shouldn’t have eaten all the cakes in one day. 4. Should可以用来表示说话人的惊奇等情感,意为“竟然,居然” Eg: 1) It’s surprising that Mary should love such a person. 2) It’s unbelievable that the boy should sing such a beautiful song. 1.You can’t imagine that a well-behaved gentleman _____ be so rude to a lady. A. can B. should C. may D. must 2. ---- When can I come for the photos? I need them tomorrow afternoon. ---- They _____ be ready by 12:00 A. can B. should C. might D. need 3. We ______ last night, but we went to the concert instead. A. must have studied B. might study C. ought to have studied D. would study B B c 5. shall 1. Shall用于第一、三人称的疑问句中,表示说话人征求对方的意见或请求。 Eg: 1) Shall we begin our discussion? 2) Shall I change the clothes for the child? 3) Shall Tom go there with me tomorrow? 4) Henry is waiting outside. Shall he come in? 2. Shall用于二、三人称的陈述句,表示说话人 的允诺、警告、命令、威胁等语气。 Eg: 1)You shall get an answer from me tomorrow. 2) He shall be punished. 3) You shall go with me. 4) Tell Jerry that he shall get a gift if he behaves well. Chairman Zhang, many people want to see you. ___they wait here or outside? A. shall B. can C. should D. may 2. You ___use my bike if you can return it to me before I leave here. A. should B. shall C. need D. must 3. You ___be punished if you break the rule. A. shall B. should C. need D. must A B A must/have?to/need 1.must用于一般问句中,肯定回答用must,否定回答用?needn’t或don’t have to,意为?“不必”。 mustn’t表示“禁止,不允许” ?— Must?I?finish?all?homework?at?a?time? ??—Yes, you must. No,?you?needn't/don’t have to. I don’t like this TV set. We must buy a new one. Mother was out, so I had to look after the shop. 2.表示“必须”这个意思时,must?和have?to?稍有区别。must着重说明主观看法,have?to?强调客观需要。另外,have?to?能用于更多时态。 ?You?must?be?the?new?teacher. ? He?must?be?joking. There?is?nobody?here.?They?must?have?all gone?home. 3.must表示对某人某事的肯定猜测, 作“准是”, “一定” , 用于肯定句中。对过去发生的事情作肯定判断用must have done,意为过去一定已经做过某事。 Why must you always interrupt me? If you must smoke, do it outside, please Why must it rain on Sunday? 4. must表示与说话人愿望相反,翻译成“偏要,硬要,非要” 5.注意对need问句的回答: --Need I finish the work today? --Yes, ________________. No, ________________. No, ________________. you must you needn’t you don’t have to --Must we do it now? --No, you __________. needn’t (don’t have to) 【考例】The boss has given everyone a special holiday, so we ____ go to work tomorrow. (上海 2007春) A. can’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t 【点拨】考查情态动词。根据题意, 可知这里表示“没有必要”, 故只能选C项。 【考例】─What do you think we can do for our aged parents? ─You ____ do anything except to be with them and be yourself. A. don’t have to B. oughtn’t to C. mustn’t D. can’t 【点拨】根据题意“除了和他们呆在一起做你自己外, 没有必要做任何事情。”可知这里选择don’t have to表示“不必”。故选A项。 【考例】 ---Jane has just come back from China and she looks happy. --- She _________ her trip very much. must enjoy B. must have enjoyed C. may enjoy D should have enjoyed 【考例】 You ____ return the book now, you can keep it until next week if you like. can’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. may not 【考例】Where is Dad, Mary? He ____ the flowers in the garden. must water B. must be watering C. Must have watered D. watered 【考例】---What’s the matter with the man hanging his head there? ---Well. If you ___know, he was caught stealing my bike. must B. may C. can D. shall 情态动词表推测用法小结 情态动词 对现在或将来情况的推测 对现在或将来正在进行的推测 对过去情况的推测 肯定推测 must must+v must+be doing must+have done 可能推测 may/might may/might+v may/might+be doing may/might+have done 否定推测 can’t/couldn’t can’t/couldn't+v can’t/couldn't+be doing can’t/couldn’t+have done 疑问推测 can/could can/could+v can/could+be doing can/could+have done 情态动词 + have done 这是历年高考热点之一, 可表示“推测、责备、怀疑” 等多种意义。 一、表示对过去事情的推测或估计 1. must have done “过去肯定已经做了某事” eg: The ground is rather wet, so it must have rained last night. 2. may/might have done “可能/大概已经做了某事” eg: Tom may have gone to shanghai, but I still not sure about it. 3. can’t/couldn’t have done “不可能已经做了某事” eg: The ground is very dry, so it can’t have rained last night 注:在疑问句中 can/could 表示对过去情况的疑问性 推测,“可能已经…了吗?” eg: Someone must have broken into our bedroom, Who could have done it? 二、表示对过去所发生事情的遗憾或责备 1. should/ought to have done “过去本应该做而没做” eg: I really regretted wasting the hours when I should have studied hard, but it was too late. 2. shouldn’t/oughtn’t to have done “过去本不应该做的事却做了” eg: I’m very sorry for the words I shouldn’t have said to you at that moment. 3. could/might have done “本来能够做的事却没做” eg: He could have worked out the problem. 4. needn’t have done “原本不必做的事却做了” eg: Your home is not far from your school, so you needn’t have left in such a hurry. 5. Would like to have done “本打算做某事但没做成” eg: I would like to have come to visit you, but I had to look after my sick mother at home.

  • ID:4-5344736 高中英语高二上学期作文训练(四):投诉信 (公开课)(共17张PPT)

    高中英语/知识点专区/书面表达/提纲作文

    高中英语投诉信(公开课)(共17张ppt):17张PPT高二上学期作文训练(四):投诉信 在遇到一些不文明现象、所购商品质量差、售后服务不满意等情况下向相关机构或人写信寻求解决问题。 在语言方面,要注意把握分寸,要公平、公正。 What is a letter of complaint 投诉信通常包括以下内容: 1.表明写信目的,因何事向对方提出投诉。 2.具体存在的问题。 3.希望对方能重视并妥善解决这个问题。 二、阅读投诉信范文回答问题。 ================================================ 压缩包内容: 高中英语投诉信(公开课)(共17张ppt).ppt

  • ID:4-5036161 高中英语非谓语动词填空题附答案

    高中英语/知识点专区/语法/非谓语动词

    非谓语动词专项分类复习 I.综合复习题 1. “Do you have any clothes _______ (wash)?” asked the maid. 2. The great danger lay in _______ (not know) our shortcomings, so we must be very careful about what we are going to do. 3. If elected, he promised he would do all he could _______ (promote) public welfare. 4. You are wasting your time _______ (persuade) him; he will never take your advice. 5. The young teacher could hardly make himself _______ (pay) attention to because the students were so noisy. 6. We can do nothing now but _______ (encourage) him. 7. The e-mail I had been looking forward to _______ (come) at last. 8. Don’t let those who are not old enough _______ (enter) the video game arcade. 9. The boy can’t help but _______ (follow) his parents’ advice because he thinks his parents’ words are right. 10. The naughty boy pretended _______ (not watch) TV when his mother came in. 11. I tried my best to do what I could _______ (help) Grace with her lessons. 12. Do you feel like _______ (have) a walk along the river? 13. A number of people _______ (stand) outside asked _______ (allow) _______ (enter) the hall. 14. It is no use _______ (regret) _______ (not study) hard last term. What you should do is _______ (make) up your mind _______ (accomplish) your task. 15. _______ (hear) him sing English songs, and you cannot help _______ (laugh). 16. _______ (force) to eat in the school cafeteria every day made me sick. 17. I’m considering _______ (make) a new plan for the trip. 18. The flowers require _______ (water) every other day if they are to survive. 19. There is no _______ (stand) still in this life; one must either advance or fall behind. 20. A high position brings many benefits, but it also means _______ (have) much responsibility. 21. He objected to _______ (keep) waiting for such a long time. 22. What is the best way you can think of _______ (ensure) an adequate supply of blood for this young patient? 23. He is said ____________ (write) several books about the workers in the past few years. 24. There ought to be no trouble _____________ (dry) your clothes. 25. There is one more point which is worth_______________ (mention). Key:1 to be washed 2 not knowing 3 to promote 4 persuading 5 paid 6 encourage 7 came 8 enter 9 follow 10 not to be watching 11 to help 12 having 13 standing to be allowed to enter 14 regretting not studying/ regretting not having studied to make to accomplish 15 Hear laughing 16 Being forced 17 making 18 watering/ to be watered 19 standing 20 having 21 being kept 22 to ensure 23 to have written 24 drying 25 mentioning II复习:分词作状语 1. ______ (hit) by a bullet, the soldier fell from the running horse. 2. ______ (cook) in wine, the meat will taste better. 3. ______ (overlook) the ocean, the houses here are very popular and they sell quite well. 4. ______ (devote) to bringing out the secret of nature, the young scientist has little time for entertainment. 5. ______ (try) to make himself ______ (hear), he shouted at the top of his voice. 6. ______ (make) several experiments, he drew a conclusion. 7. ______ (accept) as an Olympic event, a sport must be played in at least 75 countries on at least 4 continents. 8. When ______ (expose) to the sunlight for a long time, one may get skin disease. 9. ______ (not inform) of the time for the meeting ahead of time, we were late for it. 10. We often talk a great deal about English language teaching, ______ (forget) that it is the learning that really matters. 11. He sat there, ______ (watch) the children at play and ______ (listen) to the old men talking. 12. ______ (consider) as one of the most talented artist in European history, Van Gogh couldn’t have sold a single work without his brother’s assistance. 13. If ______ (leave) alone on a desert island, what would you do? 14. There was a time when table tennis was played everywhere, ______ (make) it the most popular sport across the country. 15. ______ (lose) in thought, he wasn’t aware of our presence. 16. ______ (judge) from the report, the damage was not serious. key: 1 Hit 2 Cooked 3 Overlooking 4 Devoted 5 Trying heard 6 Having made 7 To be accepted 8 exposed 9 Not having been informed/ Not informed 10 forgetting 11 watching listening 12 Considered 13 left 14 making 15 Lost 16 Judging III复习:分词作定语 1. He told me that the man _____ (refer) to in my letter had been put in prison. 2. If the work _____ (complete) by the end of the month is delayed, the construction company will be fined. 3. The flowers _____ (smell) nice in the garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. 4. The bell _____ (indicate) the end of the period rang, _____ (interrupt) our heated discussion. 5. Three separate teams of scientists recently claimed to have made a breakthrough _____ (involve) a research on human. 6. The picture _____ (hang) on the wall is painted by a famous artist. 7. The bookcase is full of books _____ (write) for high school students. 8. The question _____ (raise) by the student beat the teacher. 9. Modern zoos are different from zoos _____ (build) fifty years ago. 10. In order to jump, your body changes the chemical energy _____ (store) in the food you have eaten into mechanical energy. 11. Factory workers _____ (expose) to constant noise may gradually suffer from a loss of hearing. 12. In your opinion, what is the most serious environmental problem _____ (exist) in China? 13. Our company is an enterprise _____ (specialize) in the import and export of food and medicine. 14. The dangerous virus _____ (study) in the following few weeks in the laboratory can cause fatal diseases. 15. The bridge _____ (rebuild) there at the moment will be opened to the traffic next month. 16. In his attempt _____ (climb) the mountain, John fell and injured his backbone, which cost him the use of his legs. key: 1 referred 2 to be completed 3 smelling 4 indicating, interrupting 5 involving 6 hanging(此答案没有错) 7 written 8 raised 9 built 10 stored 11 exposed 12 existing 13 specializing 14 to be studied 15 being rebuilt 16 to climb IV复习:宾补 1. The class teacher caught these two students _______ (cheat) in the exam. 2. I won’t have you _______ (talk) to your parents in this way. 3. When will you have you hair _______ (cut)? 4. His lecture got us _______ (think). 5. He got his bike _______ (repair) just now. 6. The Internet keeps us ______ (inform) of what is going on in the world. 7. It is cold in winter, so people always keep the windows _______ (lock). 8. The lecturer had to speak very loud to make himself _______ (hear). 9. The explosion sent things _______ (fly) in all directions. 10. He felt a great weight _______ (take) off his mind. 11. The prisoner found his hands _______ (tie) after he came to himself Key 1 cheating 2 talking 3 cut 4 to think 5 repaired 6 informed 7 locked 8 heard 9 flying 10 taken 11 tied

    • 二轮复习/专题资料
    • 2018-12-12
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  • ID:4-4834116 [精] 高考一轮复习学案 第十讲 句子成分(解析版+原卷版)

    高中英语/知识点专区/语法/句型/固定句型

    第 10 讲 句子成分(主、谓、表、宾、定、 状、补语)(解析版) 虽然高考题型没有直接对句子成分的考查类型,但是句子成分是组成句子的基本结构单位,而高考题以篇章考查为主,所以学好句子成分的基础知识,正确分析句子成分和判断句子结构是学好英语的必备基础,这不仅对语法填空和短文改错等题型的解答有直接的影响,而且对写好作文、理解完形填空和阅读理解中出现的长难句有重要意义。所以教师在辅导学生备考复习时,首先要重视句子成分问题,指导考生在这方面打好坚实的基础,为进一步提高学生的语言运用能力做好知识储备。 一、句子成分的分类 从句法功能的角度讲,句子的组成部分叫做句子成分。句子成分可以分为主要成分和次要成分,主要成分有主语(从句)和谓语;次要成分有宾语(从句)、表语(从句)、定语(从句)、状语(从句)、补足语和同位语(从句)。请看下面句子成分的分析,并注意这些句子成分在句子中的位置。 [示例](2018全国卷一)In recent centres, trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education,especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades,all have caused many languages to disappear and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. 在最近的几个世纪,贸易、工业化、民族国家的发展和全球义务教育的蔓延,尤其是过去几十年来,全球化和更好的交流,这些都是导致许多语言消失的原因。而且像英语、西班牙语和汉语这些强大的语言正在不断地占据统治地位。 and连接两个并列句。 第一句子主要成分分析:trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades 主语have caused 谓语many languages 宾语第一句子次要成分分析: all同位语,to disappear状语.第二句子主要成分分析:dominant languages 主语;are taking over谓语.第二句子次要成分分析: such as English, Spanish and Chinese同位语;increasingly状语。 二、句子成分的用法 在了解了句子成分的定义和分类之后,下面结合具体的例子,详细讲解有关句子成分的用法要点。 (一)主语 主语是动作的发出者。通常情况下,一个表示人、物或事的词、短语或从句,来表示谓语动作的执行者或状态情形的主体,就是句子的主语。 位置:主语一般位于句子开头,且不能省略。特例:疑问句、倒装句、祈使句、感叹句等,句子主语可以位于谓语动词之后或省略。 充当主语的词和短语主要有:名词、代词、数词、动名词或动名词短语、动词不定式或动词不定式短语和从句等。 [应用例析] I’m fond of my sister but she has one serious shortcoming.(人教U3) My background is tradition Chinese music. (外研M4) To find a best friend is difficult. (译林U1) No one knows for sure,and making predictions is a risky business. (外研M1) What is even more unbelievable is the fact that some murderers are let out of prison after three or four years. (北师大U24) (二)谓语 谓语描述主语所发出的动作,说明主语的动作或存在的状态。 位置:谓语一般位于主语之后。谓语中的核心部分是行为动词, 特点:它有时态、语态和语气的变化,并受主语人称和数的影响。谓语可以带有自己的状语,具体说明谓语动词所表示的动作发生的时间、频度等。 充当谓语的动词可以分为以下几种: 1.行为动词,这类动词分为不及物动词和及物动词。 2.连系动词,如:be, keep, look, smell, feel, taste, appear, sound, remain, seem, turn, become, get, fall, grow等。 3.助动词,如:be, do, have, will (shall)等。 4.情态动词,如:can/could, may/might, must, shall/should, ought to 等。 [应用例析] Later land animals appeared.(人教③U4) I bought a ticket at a discount and rode the underground three times.(译林⑦U4) The scene looks real.(外研⑧M2) We do no have to put up with pollution.(人教⑥U4) It was too dark, and I couldn' t make out the words written on the wall.(译林⑦U2) (三)宾语 宾语表示谓语动词所表示动作的对象,是动作的承受者。 分类:简单宾语、双宾语(直接宾语+间接宾语)、复合宾语(宾语+宾语补足语)和宾语从句四种。 位置:宾语通常位于谓语动词之后,能够带宾语的主要是及物动词、相当于及物动词的短语动词和介词等。 充当宾语的主要有:名词、代词、数词、动词不定式短语、动名词、名词化的形容词以及从句等。 [应用例析] My?name?is?Jane.?My?ideal?job?is?to?be?a?journalist.(北师大⑤U14) Both?speakers?seemed?very?knowledgeable?abou?the?Internet. (译林⑦U3) The?whole?class?is?here. (外研M1) The?first design?of?the?room?was?in?the?fancy?syle?popular?in?those?days. (人教U1) Her?first?delight?was?going?to?theTower. (人教U2) This?is?how?the?story?goes. (人教U4) (四)表语 表语主要用来说明主语的身份、特征、状态、性质、职业、数量、方向或处所等。 位置:表语一般位于连系动词之后,一般看来,连系动词和表语共同构成谓语。 充当表语的词主要有:名词、代词、形容词、副词、动词不定式、动名词、数词以及从句等。 [应用例析] we oflen do homework together and we enjoy helping each other. (人教U1) He also writes film music. (外研M3) I’ve tried and failed to make paper wtth all these plants. (译林U3) I hope I can go there to study. (北师大⑤U13) (五)定语 定语通常用来修饰名词或相当于名词的词或短语及句子,所以常被称作名词修饰语。分类:前置定语和后置定语 位置:单个的单词作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之前;短语或定语从句作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之后。 充当定语的有:形容词、形容词性物主代词、数词、名词、名词所有格、分词短语、动名词短语、动词不定式短语、介词短语、冠词以及从句等。 [应用例析] Mozi founded the philosophy called Mohism.(外研③M5) Health care is free for everyone living in Britain. (外研②M1) OK, I'm going to make a project book with lots of pictures in it. (北师大③U7) It contains a powerful drug which affects mosquitoes. (人教②U4) (六)状语 状语通常用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作的状态或特征。 位置:比较灵活,可以在句首,也可以在句中或句末。 分类:状语一般可以用来表示时间、地点、目的、原因、结果、条件、让步、程度、方式、比较、以及伴随等情况。 充当状语的有:副词、介词短语、分词短语、动词不定式及状语从句等。 [应用例析] I like talking on the phone. (人教U4) She went back to China, to study journalism at Peking University.(译林U2) Everyone in the world can access the Internet using his World Wide Web system.(外研①M6) When we arrived, we found Wang Li was extremely charming. (人教⑤U4) Personally, I think the team that won first place cheated. (人教②U3) (七)补足语 分类:宾语补足语和主语补足语。 宾语补足语:在主动语态的句子中,一些及物动词的宾语需要在其后加上一个补足语,对其作进一步补充说明,该补足语叫作宾语补足语,宾语及其补足语一起构成复合宾语,二者之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。 主语补足语:在被动语态中补充说明主语的成分叫作主语补足语。 充当补足语的有:名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式、现在分词和过去分词等。 [应用例析] They?called?him?the?prince?of gymnasts. (外研⑤M5) We?found?the?ruins?most?interesting. (译林U3) We?invite?you?to?bring?your?family?and friends on that special day. (人教U4) I’ve?never?heard?the?word?used?in?spoken?English. At times?went?by,?I?was?made?smaller. (人教U3) No?one?is?known?to?have?escaped. (人教U1) He?was?caught?cheating?on?the?exam. The?machine?is?found?in?a?bad?state. (八)同位语 同位语是前面的名词作进一步的补充、限制和说明,使其意义更清楚,意思更完整。 位置:通常是紧跟着它所补充说明的先行名词。 特点:从语法意义而言,同位语与被它说明的先行名词的格要保持一致,并且前后两项所指相同、句法功能也相同。当前后同位关系紧密时,它们之间不用逗号隔开;当同位语只作补充解释时可用逗号把它们隔开。 充当同位语的主要有:名词、名词性短语或从句等。 [应用例析] The first invaders, the Romans, left their towns and roads.(人教⑤U2) We each?have?a?computer. They?two?went,?and?we?three?stayed?behind. The?fact?that?ocean?ships?can?go?there?surprises?many?people. (人教U5) 1.直接宾语 Direct Object与间接宾语 Indirect Object的注意点: 直接宾语一般指动作的承受者,多指物;间接宾语指动作所向者,多指人。间接宾语通常置于直接宾语之前,若放在直接宾语之后,一般须加介词to或for。 带双宾语的及物动词有:answer,bring,buy,do,fetch,get,give,hand,keep, leave,lend,make,offer,owe,pass,pay, play,promise,read, refuse, save, sell, send, show, sing, take, teach, tell, throw, wish, write等。例如: My parents bought me a computer./ My parents bought a computer for me.我父母给我买了一台电胞。 He sent me a birthday gift yesterday. /He sent a birthday gift to me yesterday他昨天给我寄了一份生日礼 it作形式宾语: think, find, make, take, consider, feel等动词后可接it作形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放到宾语补足语之后。例如: I find it interesting that Amencan students have so many clubs.(外研M2) 2. 复合宾语的注意点 复合宾语(Complex Object):宾语与实语补足语一起构成复合实语。常见的接复合宾语的动词有:ask,?tell,?want,?wish,?like,?hate,?see,?watch,?notice,?observe,?hear,feel,have,make,let,get,consider,think,believe,disconer,judge,suppose等,但hope 后不能接符合宾语。 3.定语前置和后置的注意点 修饰some,any,every,no等构成的不定代词时,定语必须后置。例如 Did I miss anything important?我有没有错过什么重要的事? Everybody interested welcome to attend this event!欢迎所有感兴趣的人参加这项活动 副词here,there, above,below, yesterday, tomorrow等作定语时,必须后置。例如 The water there is not safe for drinking.那里的水不适合饮用。 The picture above is drawn by my son.上面那幅画是我儿子画的。 形容词asleep, awake,alive, present(在场的)等作定语时,通常后置。例如: She was the only person awake that night.她是那天晚上唯一醒着的人。 His idea was accepted by all the people present.他的想法为所有在场人员接受 同根的名词和形容词作定语时通常前置,但意义不同。 a horror film恐怖影片 a horrible film今人感到思怖的影 a stone path一条石板路 a stony path 一条铺满碎石的路 a gold cup金质奖杯 golden hair金发 知识点一 主语的特殊形式 例1.________ (ignore) the difference between the two research findings will be one of the worst mistakes you make.    【答案】Ignoring/To ignore 【解析】句意:忽视那两个调查结果的不同将会是你犯的最严重的错误之一。分析句子结构可知,句中谓语为will be,设空处在句中作主语,故用动词不定式或动名词形式均可。 变式训练 1: There they met people from other parts of the country, ________ had also volunteered to help. 知识点二 谓语的特殊形式 例2 While making great efforts to run away, she ________ (fall) over the hill and died. 【答案】fell  【解析】分析句子结构可知,空格处在句中作谓语,结合语境和与之并列的动词died可知,空格处表示过去发生的动作,因此应用一般过去时。 变式训练 2: The understanding between two friends means both of them have similar ideas and trusting each other.(改错) 知识点三 宾语的特殊形式 例3 One morning, I was waiting at the bus stop, worried about ________ (be) late for school. 【答案】being  【解析】空前是介词about,空处作about的宾语,故be需要用动名词形式。 变式训练3: He isn’t good at talk but he gets on well with other people.(改错) 知识点四 表语的特殊形式 例4 Just be ________ (patience). 【答案】patient  【解析】该句是祈使句结构,其中be 是连系动词,故用形容词作表语。 变式训练4:  The teachers here are kind and helpfully. (改错) 知识点五 定语的特殊形式 例5  Freud was one of the first scientists ________ (make) serious research of the mind. 【答案】to make   【解析】分析句子结构可知,空格处应填非谓语动词。由空前的the first可知,应用动词不定式作定语。 变式训练5: So really friendship should be able to stand all sorts of tests. (改错) 知识点六 状语的特殊形式 例6 The river was so polluted that it ________ (actual) caught fire and burned. 【答案】actually  【解析】句中应使用副词actually作状语修饰谓语动词,actual是形容词,不能在句中作状语,通常只作定语或者表语修饰名词。 知识点七 宾补的特殊形式 例7 To his surprise, Jack found his son ________ (dress) as Santa Claus on Christmas Eve. 【答案】dressed  【解析】句意:使杰克惊讶的是,他发现儿子在圣诞节前夜被装扮成了圣诞老人。此处为“find+宾语+宾语补足语”结构,用过去分词作宾语补足语。dress意为“给(某人)穿衣”,常用于dress sb.或sb. be/get dressed结构。 变式训练6: (2013·四川高考短文改错)We were warned not cheat again or she would need to see our parents. 知识点八 同位语的特殊形式 例8 Mr. Johnson cares for us student very much. 【答案】student→students 【解析】此处该名词用作us的同位语成分,故根据us的意义可知,该词需要用复数形式。 变式训练7: His suggestion ________ we should finish the work by the weekend is reasonable. 知识点九 长难句分析 例9 (2018年全国1卷阅读理解A篇)This small group bike tour is a fantastic way to see a world-famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington, D.C.(找出定语) 【答案】to see a world-famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington, D.C.是定语。  【解析】这个小组自行车旅游是观看华盛顿特区闻名世界的,开满了美丽花朵的樱桃树的极好方式。 变式训练8: (2018年全国1卷阅读理解B篇)And the Good Morning Britain presenter says she’s been able to put a lot of what she’s learnt into practice in her own home, preparing meals for sons, Sam,14, Finn,13, and Jack, 11.(找出从句) 一、分析句子成分 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 二、划分句子成分 (主语用____,谓语用  ,宾语用  ,定语用,状语用,补足语用,同位语用) 1.Recently I have carried out a survey among the students in our class. 2.One day some of my students were talking about what we would like to be in the future. 3.Music can make our mind in a peaceful state after a whole day of tiring work. 4.The meeting held yesterday was important. 5.Every day he was forced to work from morning till night. 6.Word came that the mayor would pay a visit to our school next week. 7.A blind man was walking slowly and carefully with a stick in his hand. 8.At the same time, parents are giving their children too much protection. 9.Bathed in the sunshine, we jumped and cheered with joy. 10.We haven’t decided when to discuss the question again. 三、高考真题长难句分析 按要求找出下面句子中的成分 2018年真题: 1. (2018年全国1卷阅读理解D篇) We may think we're a culture that gets rid of our worn technology at the first sight of something shiny and new, but a new study shows that we keep using our old devices(装置) well after they go out of style.(宾语从句) 2. (2018年全国1卷七选五) Whether you’re looking at wallpaper or paint, the time, effort and relative expense put into it are significant. 3. (2018年全国1卷完形填空) In order to pass the class ,among other criteria, we had to write a paper on how we plan to apply what we would learn in class to our future professions and, eventually, to our lives. 4. (2018年全国1卷语法填空)While running regatesalstly cann't make you live forever, the review says it is more effective at lengthening life than walking, cycling or swimming. 2017年真题: 1.(2017年全国1卷阅读理解A篇)It’s an amazing accomplishment and one we cannot achieve without generous support from individuals, corporations, and other social organizations. 2.(2017年全国1卷阅读理解D篇)Then lay the tube in place so that one end rests all the way in the cup and the rest of the line runs up — and out — the side of the hole. 3.(2017年全国1卷阅读七选五)If anyone had told me three years ago that I would be spending most of my weekends camping, I would have laughed heartily. 4.(2017年全国1卷阅读七选五)This brief visit with Mother Nature cost me two days off from work, recovering from a bad case of sunburn and the doctor’s bill for my son’s food poisoning. 5.(2017年全国1卷完形填空)Little did I know that I would discover my love for ASL. 6.(2017年全国1卷完形填空)What I saw was completely unlike anything I had experienced in the past. 7. (2017年全国1卷完形填空)Instead, if there had been any talking, it would have caused us to learn less. 8.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解A篇)By translating the rich and humourous text of Love’s Labour’s Lost into the physical language of BSL, Deafinitely Theatre creates a new interpretation of Shakespeare’s comedy and aims to build a bridge between deaf and hearing worlds by performing to both groups as one audience. 9.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解B篇)The friendship that grew out of the experience of making that film and The Sting four years later had its root in the fact that although there was an age difference, we both came from a tradition of theater and live TV.(同位语从句、让步状语从句) 10.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解B篇)We shared the belief that if you’re fortunate enough to have success, you should put something back 一 he with his Newman’s Own food and his Hole in the Wall camps for kids who are seriously ill, and me with Sundance and the institute and the festival.(同位语从句、条件状语从句、定语从句) 11.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解C篇)Terrafugia says an owner would need to pass a test and complete 20 hours of flying time to be able to fly the Transition, a requirement pilots would find relatively easy to meet . 12.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解D篇) Back in 1983, two scientists, Jack Schultz and Ian Baldwin, reported that young maple trees getting bitten by insects send out a particular smell that neighboring plants can get. (宾语从句、非谓语动词、定语从句) 13.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读七选五)If someone knocks and it’s not an important matter, excuse yourself and let the person know you’re busy so they can get the hint (暗示)that when the door is closed, you’re not to be disturbed. 14.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解B篇)Bradford sold the building and land to a local development firm, which plans to build a shopping complex on the land where the theater is located.(定语从句) 15.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解D篇)The Intelligent Transport team at Newcastle University have turned an electric car into a mobile laboratory named “DriveLAB” in order to understand the challenges faced by older drivers and to discover where the key stress points are. 16.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解D篇)For many older people, particularly those living alone or in the country, driving is important for preserving their independence, giving them the freedom to get out and about without having to rely on others. 17.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解D篇)Research shows that giving up driving is one of the key reasons for a fall in health and well-being among older people, leading to them becoming more isolated (隔绝) and inactive. 18.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷完形填空) Axani wrote in his post that he is not looking for anything in return and that the woman who uses the extra ticket can choose to either travel with him or take the ticket and travel on her own. 10 第 10 讲 句子成分(主、谓、表、宾、定、 状、补语)(解析版) 虽然高考题型没有直接对句子成分的考查类型,但是句子成分是组成句子的基本结构单位,而高考题以篇章考查为主,所以学好句子成分的基础知识,正确分析句子成分和判断句子结构是学好英语的必备基础,这不仅对语法填空和短文改错等题型的解答有直接的影响,而且对写好作文、理解完形填空和阅读理解中出现的长难句有重要意义。所以教师在辅导学生备考复习时,首先要重视句子成分问题,指导考生在这方面打好坚实的基础,为进一步提高学生的语言运用能力做好知识储备。 一、句子成分的分类 从句法功能的角度讲,句子的组成部分叫做句子成分。句子成分可以分为主要成分和次要成分,主要成分有主语(从句)和谓语;次要成分有宾语(从句)、表语(从句)、定语(从句)、状语(从句)、补足语和同位语(从句)。请看下面句子成分的分析,并注意这些句子成分在句子中的位置。 [示例](2018全国卷一)In recent centres, trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education,especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades,all have caused many languages to disappear and dominant languages such as English, Spanish and Chinese are increasingly taking over. 在最近的几个世纪,贸易、工业化、民族国家的发展和全球义务教育的蔓延,尤其是过去几十年来,全球化和更好的交流,这些都是导致许多语言消失的原因。而且像英语、西班牙语和汉语这些强大的语言正在不断地占据统治地位。 and连接两个并列句。 第一句子主要成分分析:trade,industrialisation. the development of the nation-state and the spread of universal compulsory education, especially glbalisation and better communications in the past few decades 主语have caused 谓语many languages 宾语第一句子次要成分分析: all同位语,to disappear状语.第二句子主要成分分析:dominant languages 主语;are taking over谓语.第二句子次要成分分析:such as English, Spanish and Chinese同位语;increasingly状语。 二、句子成分的用法 在了解了句子成分的定义和分类之后,下面结合具体的例子,详细讲解有关句子成分的用法要点。 (一)主语 主语是动作的发出者。通常情况下,一个表示人、物或事的词、短语或从句,来表示谓语动作的执行者或状态情形的主体,就是句子的主语。 位置:主语一般位于句子开头,且不能省略。特例:疑问句、倒装句、祈使句、感叹句等,句子主语可以位于谓语动词之后或省略。 充当主语的词和短语主要有:名词、代词、数词、动名词或动名词短语、动词不定式或动词不定式短语和从句等。 [应用例析] I’m fond of my sister but she has one serious shortcoming.(人教U3) My background is tradition Chinese music. (外研M4) To find a best friend is difficult. (译林U1) No one knows for sure,and making predictions is a risky business. (外研M1) What is even more unbelievable is the fact that some murderers are let out of prison after three or four years. (北师大U24) (二)谓语 谓语描述主语所发出的动作,说明主语的动作或存在的状态。 位置:谓语一般位于主语之后。谓语中的核心部分是行为动词, 特点:它有时态、语态和语气的变化,并受主语人称和数的影响。谓语可以带有自己的状语,具体说明谓语动词所表示的动作发生的时间、频度等。 充当谓语的动词可以分为以下几种: 1.行为动词,这类动词分为不及物动词和及物动词。 2.连系动词,如:be, keep, look, smell, feel, taste, appear, sound, remain, seem, turn, become, get, fall, grow等。 3.助动词,如:be, do, have, will (shall)等。 4.情态动词,如:can/could, may/might, must, shall/should, ought to 等。 [应用例析] Later land animals appeared.(人教③U4) I bought a ticket at a discount and rode the underground three times.(译林⑦U4) The scene looks real.(外研⑧M2) We do no have to put up with pollution.(人教⑥U4) It was too dark, and I couldn' t make out the words written on the wall.(译林⑦U2) (三)宾语 宾语表示谓语动词所表示动作的对象,是动作的承受者。 分类:简单宾语、双宾语(直接宾语+间接宾语)、复合宾语(宾语+宾语补足语)和宾语从句四种。 位置:宾语通常位于谓语动词之后,能够带宾语的主要是及物动词、相当于及物动词的短语动词和介词等。 充当宾语的主要有:名词、代词、数词、动词不定式短语、动名词、名词化的形容词以及从句等。 [应用例析] My?name?is?Jane.?My?ideal?job?is?to?be?a?journalist.(北师大⑤U14) Both?speakers?seemed?very?knowledgeable?abou?the?Internet. (译林⑦U3) The?whole?class?is?here. (外研M1) The?first design?of?the?room?was?in?the?fancy?syle?popular?in?those?days. (人教U1) Her?first?delight?was?going?to?theTower. (人教U2) This?is?how?the?story?goes. (人教U4) (四)表语 表语主要用来说明主语的身份、特征、状态、性质、职业、数量、方向或处所等。 位置:表语一般位于连系动词之后,一般看来,连系动词和表语共同构成谓语。 充当表语的词主要有:名词、代词、形容词、副词、动词不定式、动名词、数词以及从句等。 [应用例析] we oflen do homework together and we enjoy helping each other. (人教U1) He also writes film music. (外研M3) I’ve tried and failed to make paper wtth all these plants. (译林U3) I hope I can go there to study. (北师大⑤U13) (五)定语 定语通常用来修饰名词或相当于名词的词或短语及句子,所以常被称作名词修饰语。分类:前置定语和后置定语 位置:单个的单词作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之前;短语或定语从句作定语时,通常放在被修饰词之后。 充当定语的有:形容词、形容词性物主代词、数词、名词、名词所有格、分词短语、动名词短语、动词不定式短语、介词短语、冠词以及从句等。 [应用例析] Mozi founded the philosophy called Mohism.(外研③M5) Health care is free for everyone living in Britain. (外研②M1) OK, I'm going to make a project book with lots of pictures in it. (北师大③U7) It contains a powerful drug which affects mosquitoes. (人教②U4) (六)状语 状语通常用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作的状态或特征。 位置:比较灵活,可以在句首,也可以在句中或句末。 分类:状语一般可以用来表示时间、地点、目的、原因、结果、条件、让步、程度、方式、比较、以及伴随等情况。 充当状语的有:副词、介词短语、分词短语、动词不定式及状语从句等。 [应用例析] I like talking on the phone. (人教U4) She went back to China, to study journalism at Peking University.(译林U2) Everyone in the world can access the Internet using his World Wide Web system.(外研①M6) When we arrived, we found Wang Li was extremely charming. (人教⑤U4) Personally, I think the team that won first place cheated. (人教②U3) (七)补足语 分类:宾语补足语和主语补足语。 宾语补足语:在主动语态的句子中,一些及物动词的宾语需要在其后加上一个补足语,对其作进一步补充说明,该补足语叫作宾语补足语,宾语及其补足语一起构成复合宾语,二者之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。 主语补足语:在被动语态中补充说明主语的成分叫作主语补足语。 充当补足语的有:名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、动词不定式、现在分词和过去分词等。 [应用例析] They?called?him?the?prince?of gymnasts. (外研⑤M5) We?found?the?ruins?most?interesting. (译林U3) We?invite?you?to?bring?your?family?and friends on that special day. (人教U4) I’ve?never?heard?the?word?used?in?spoken?English. At times?went?by,?I?was?made?smaller. (人教U3) No?one?is?known?to?have?escaped. (人教U1) He?was?caught?cheating?on?the?exam. The?machine?is?found?in?a?bad?state. (八)同位语 同位语是前面的名词作进一步的补充、限制和说明,使其意义更清楚,意思更完整。 位置:通常是紧跟着它所补充说明的先行名词。 特点:从语法意义而言,同位语与被它说明的先行名词的格要保持一致,并且前后两项所指相同、句法功能也相同。当前后同位关系紧密时,它们之间不用逗号隔开;当同位语只作补充解释时可用逗号把它们隔开。 充当同位语的主要有:名词、名词性短语或从句等。 [应用例析] The first invaders, the Romans, left their towns and roads.(人教⑤U2) We each?have?a?computer. They?two?went,?and?we?three?stayed?behind. The?fact?that?ocean?ships?can?go?there?surprises?many?people. (人教U5) 1.直接宾语 Direct Object与间接宾语 Indirect Object的注意点: 直接宾语一般指动作的承受者,多指物;间接宾语指动作所向者,多指人。间接宾语通常置于直接宾语之前,若放在直接宾语之后,一般须加介词to或for。 带双宾语的及物动词有:answer,bring,buy,do,fetch,get,give,hand,keep, leave,lend,make,offer,owe,pass,pay, play,promise,read, refuse, save, sell, send, show, sing, take, teach, tell, throw, wish, write等。例如: My parents bought me a computer./ My parents bought a computer for me.我父母给我买了一台电胞。 He sent me a birthday gift yesterday. /He sent a birthday gift to me yesterday他昨天给我寄了一份生日礼 it作形式宾语: think, find, make, take, consider, feel等动词后可接it作形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放到宾语补足语之后。例如: I find it interesting that Amencan students have so many clubs.(外研M2) 2. 复合宾语的注意点 复合宾语(Complex Object):宾语与实语补足语一起构成复合实语。常见的接复合宾语的动词有:ask,?tell,?want,?wish,?like,?hate,?see,?watch,?notice,?observe,?hear,feel,have,make,let,get,consider,think,believe,disconer,judge,suppose等,但hope 后不能接符合宾语。 3.定语前置和后置的注意点 修饰some,any,every,no等构成的不定代词时,定语必须后置。例如 Did I miss anything important?我有没有错过什么重要的事? Everybody interested welcome to attend this event!欢迎所有感兴趣的人参加这项活动 副词here,there, above,below, yesterday, tomorrow等作定语时,必须后置。例如 The water there is not safe for drinking.那里的水不适合饮用。 The picture above is drawn by my son.上面那幅画是我儿子画的。 形容词asleep, awake,alive, present(在场的)等作定语时,通常后置。例如: She was the only person awake that night.她是那天晚上唯一醒着的人。 His idea was accepted by all the people present.他的想法为所有在场人员接受 同根的名词和形容词作定语时通常前置,但意义不同。 a horror film恐怖影片 a horrible film今人感到思怖的影 a stone path一条石板路 a stony path 一条铺满碎石的路 a gold cup金质奖杯 golden hair金发 知识点一 主语的特殊形式 例1.________ (ignore) the difference between the two research findings will be one of the worst mistakes you make.    【答案】Ignoring/To ignore 【解析】句意:忽视那两个调查结果的不同将会是你犯的最严重的错误之一。分析句子结构可知,句中谓语为will be,设空处在句中作主语,故用动词不定式或动名词形式均可。 变式训练 1: 1)There they met people from other parts of the country, ________ had also volunteered to help. 【答案】who  【解析】句意:在那里他们遇到了从这个国家其他地方来的人,他们也是自愿来帮忙的。分析句子结构可知,此处应是非限制性定语从句的引导词,先行词是people,从句缺少主语,故填关系代词who。 知识点二 谓语的特殊形式 例2 While making great efforts to run away, she ________ (fall) over the hill and died. 【答案】fell  【解析】分析句子结构可知,空格处在句中作谓语,结合语境和与之并列的动词died可知,空格处表示过去发生的动作,因此应用一般过去时。 变式训练 2: The understanding between two friends means both of them have similar ideas and trusting each other.(改错) 【答案】trusting→trust  【解析】主句中谓语动词means之后跟有宾语从句,从句中连词and连接并列谓语,根据前一个谓语动词have可知,trust需要用动词原形的形式。 知识点三 宾语的特殊形式 例3 One morning, I was waiting at the bus stop, worried about ________ (be) late for school. 【答案】being  【解析】空前是介词about,空处作about的宾语,故be需要用动名词形式。 变式训练3:  He isn’t good at talk but he gets on well with other people. (改错) 【答案】talk→talking  【解析】动词短语“be good at”中at是介词,故之后需要跟动名词作宾语。 知识点四 表语的特殊形式 例4 Just be ________ (patience). 【答案】patient  【解析】该句是祈使句结构,其中be 是连系动词,故用形容词作表语。 变式训练4:  The teachers here are kind and helpfully. 【答案】helpfully→helpful   【解析】该句是“主系表”结构,其中连词and连接并列的表语,故后者需要用形容词形式。 知识点五 定语的特殊形式 例5  Freud was one of the first scientists ________ (make) serious research of the mind. 【答案】to make   【解析】分析句子结构可知,空格处应填非谓语动词。由空前的the first可知,应用动词不定式作定语。 变式训练5: So really friendship should be able to stand all sorts of tests. (改错) 【答案】really→real  【解析】句中用作主语的friendship是名词,所以用形容词修饰,该形容词作定语。 知识点六 状语的特殊形式 例6 The river was so polluted that it ________ (actual) caught fire and burned. 【答案】actually  【解析】句中应使用副词actually作状语修饰谓语动词,actual是形容词,不能在句中作状语,通常只作定语或者表语修饰名词。 知识点七 宾补的特殊形式 例7 To his surprise, Jack found his son ________ (dress) as Santa Claus on Christmas Eve. 【答案】dressed  【解析】句意:使杰克惊讶的是,他发现儿子在圣诞节前夜被装扮成了圣诞老人。此处为“find+宾语+宾语补足语”结构,用过去分词作宾语补足语。dress意为“给(某人)穿衣”,常用于dress sb.或sb. be/get dressed结构。 变式训练6: (2013·四川高考短文改错)We were warned not cheat again or she would need to see our parents. 【答案】cheat前加to 【解析】该句是or连接的并列句,前一个分句使用了“warn sb.to do sth.”这一结构的被动语态,其中cheat应该作主语补足语,故此处要添加动词不定式符号to。 知识点八 同位语的特殊形式 例8 Mr. Johnson cares for us student very much. (改错) 【答案】student→students 【解析】此处该名词用作us的同位语成分,故根据us的意义可知,该词需要用复数形式。 变式训练7: His suggestion ________ we should finish the work by the weekend is reasonable. 【答案】that  【解析】分析句子结构可知,主语是his suggestion,谓语部分是“系表”结构,主语之后的是一个完整的句子,说明主语的含义,是同位语从句,需要用that引导。 知识点九 长难句分析 例9 (2018年全国1卷阅读理解A篇)This small group bike tour is a fantastic way to see a world-famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington, D.C.(找出定语) 【答案】to see a world-famous cherry trees with beautiful flowers of Washington, D.C.是定语。  【解析】这个小组自行车旅游是观看华盛顿特区闻名世界的,开满了美丽花朵的樱桃树的极好方式。 变式训练8: (2018年全国1卷阅读理解B篇)And the Good Morning Britain presenter says she’s been able to put a lot of what she’s learnt into practice in her own home, preparing meals for sons, Sam,14, Finn,13, and Jack, 11. (找出从句) 【答案】says后是省略that的宾语从句,其中what引导的宾语从句做of 的宾语。“preparing meals for.”是现在分词短语作伴随状语。  【解析】译文:《早安英国》的节目主持人说,她能够在自己家里把许多学到的东西付诸实践,即为儿子们(14岁的Sam,13岁的Finn和11岁的Jack)做饭。 一、分析句子成分 1. . 2. . 3. . 4. . 5. . 6. . 二、划分句子成分 (主语用____,谓语用  ,宾语用  ,定语用,状语用,补足语用,同位语用) 1.Recently I have carried out a survey among the students in our class. 2.One day some of my students were talking about what we would like to be in the future. 3.Music can make our mind in a peaceful state after a whole day of tiring work. 4.The meeting held yesterday was important. 5.Every day he was forced to work from morning till night. 6.Word came that the mayor would pay a visit to our school next week. 7.A blind man was walking slowly and carefully with a stick in his hand. 8.At the same time, parents are giving their children too much protection. 9.Bathed in the sunshine, we jumped and cheered with joy. 10.We haven’t decided when to discuss the question again. 三、高考真题长难句分析 按要求找出下面句子中的成分 2018年真题: 1. (2018年全国1卷阅读理解D篇) We may think we're a culture that gets rid of our worn technology at the first sight of something shiny and new, but a new study shows that we keep using our old devices(装置) well after they go out of style.(宾语从句) 2. (2018年全国1卷七选五) Whether you’re looking at wallpaper or paint, the time, effort and relative expense put into it are significant. 3. (2018年全国1卷完形填空) In order to pass the class ,among other criteria, we had to write a paper on how we plan to apply what we would learn in class to our future professions and, eventually, to our lives. 4. (2018年全国1卷语法填空)While running regatesalstly cann't make you live forever, the review says it is more effective at lengthening life than walking, cycling or swimming. 2017年真题: 1.(2017年全国1卷阅读理解A篇)It’s an amazing accomplishment and one we cannot achieve without generous support from individuals, corporations, and other social organizations. 2.(2017年全国1卷阅读理解D篇)Then lay the tube in place so that one end rests all the way in the cup and the rest of the line runs up — and out — the side of the hole. 3.(2017年全国1卷阅读七选五)If anyone had told me three years ago that I would be spending most of my weekends camping, I would have laughed heartily. 4.(2017年全国1卷阅读七选五)This brief visit with Mother Nature cost me two days off from work, recovering from a bad case of sunburn and the doctor’s bill for my son’s food poisoning. 5.(2017年全国1卷完形填空)Little did I know that I would discover my love for ASL. 6.(2017年全国1卷完形填空)What I saw was completely unlike anything I had experienced in the past. 7. (2017年全国1卷完形填空)Instead, if there had been any talking, it would have caused us to learn less. 8.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解A篇)By translating the rich and humourous text of Love’s Labour’s Lost into the physical language of BSL, Deafinitely Theatre creates a new interpretation of Shakespeare’s comedy and aims to build a bridge between deaf and hearing worlds by performing to both groups as one audience. 9.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解B篇)The friendship that grew out of the experience of making that film and The Sting four years later had its root in the fact that although there was an age difference, we both came from a tradition of theater and live TV.(同位语从句、让步状语从句) 10.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解B篇)We shared the belief that if you’re fortunate enough to have success, you should put something back 一 he with his Newman’s Own food and his Hole in the Wall camps for kids who are seriously ill, and me with Sundance and the institute and the festival.(同位语从句、条件状语从句、定语从句) 11.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解C篇)Terrafugia says an owner would need to pass a test and complete 20 hours of flying time to be able to fly the Transition, a requirement pilots would find relatively easy to meet . 12.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读理解D篇) Back in 1983, two scientists, Jack Schultz and Ian Baldwin, reported that young maple trees getting bitten by insects send out a particular smell that neighboring plants can get. (宾语从句、非谓语动词、定语从句) 13.(2017年全国Ⅱ卷阅读七选五)If someone knocks and it’s not an important matter, excuse yourself and let the person know you’re busy so they can get the hint (暗示)that when the door is closed, you’re not to be disturbed. 14.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解B篇)Bradford sold the building and land to a local development firm, which plans to build a shopping complex on the land where the theater is located.(定语从句) 15.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解D篇)The Intelligent Transport team at Newcastle University have turned an electric car into a mobile laboratory named “DriveLAB” in order to understand the challenges faced by older drivers and to discover where the key stress points are. 16.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解D篇)For many older people, particularly those living alone or in the country, driving is important for preserving their independence, giving them the freedom to get out and about without having to rely on others. 17.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷阅读理解D篇)Research shows that giving up driving is one of the key reasons for a fall in health and well-being among older people, leading to them becoming more isolated (隔绝) and inactive. 18.(2017年全国Ⅲ卷完形填空) Axani wrote in his post that he is not looking for anything in return and that the woman who uses the extra ticket can choose to either travel with him or take the ticket and travel on her own. 答案解析 一、 1. ①状语 ②主语 ③谓语 ④宾语 ⑤状语 2. ①状语 ②主语 ③谓语 ④宾语 3. ①主语 ②谓语 ③宾语 ④宾补 ⑤状语 4. ①主语 ②定语 ③谓语(系动词+表语) 5. ①状语 ②主语 ③谓语 ④主补 6. ①主语 ②谓语 ③同位语 二、 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. We haven’t decided when to discuss the question again. 三、 2018年真题: 1. 分析:本句是一个并列复合句。“ think”后面为省略了that的宾语从句;从句中的that引导定语从句,并在定语从句中作主语;“ shows”后面是that引导的宾语从句; after引导时间状语从句。译文:我们可能会认为我们处于这样一种文化中:一看到闪闪发亮的新产品,我们就会扔掉旧技术,但一项新的研究表明,旧设备过时后,我们仍在继续使用它们。 2. 分析:本句是一个复合句。“ Whether you're looking at wallpaper or pain”是让步状语从句,引导词是“ whether…0r..,”,意为“不管是……还是……”; put into it是过去分词,短语作“ the time, effort and relative expense"”的后置定语。译文:无论你是在看壁纸还是涂料,你在上面投入的时间、精力和相关费用都是有意义的。 3. 分析:本句是一个复合句。how和what均引导宾语从句;“ In order to pass the class"作目的状语。译文:除其他标准外,为了通过这门课,我们还必须写一篇论文,论文是关于我们如何计划把我们在课堂上将要学到的知识应用到我们未来的职业中,并最终应用到我们的生活中。 4. 分析:本句是一个复合句, While引导让步状语从句;says后面是省略了引导词that的宾语从句;“ live forever”在句中作宾语补足语。译文:虽然经常跑步并不能让你长生不老,但该评论说它比散步、骑自行车或游泳能更有效地延长寿命。 2017年真题: 1. 句意:这是一个惊人的成就,一个没有来自个人、公司和其他社会组织的慷慨的支持我们就不可能取得的成就。 分析:本句为复合句。其中,one指代前面的accomplishment,后面为定语从句,修饰先行词one,且从句使用了cannot和without表示双重否定。 2. 句意:接着把管子放在恰当的位置,使得管子的一端放在杯子里,管子的其余部分向上延伸到坑的外部。 分析:本句为复合句。主句lay the tube in place为祈使句;so that引导目的状语从句,从句是and连接的并列句。 3. 句意:如果三年前有人告诉我会用大部分的周末时间来野营,我会狂笑不已。 分析:本句为主从复合句。if引导的是条件状语从句,因表示对与过去事实相反的假设,所以本句中条件句使用过去完成时。此外从句中包含了一个that引导宾语从句。 4. 句意:这次跟自然母亲的短暂亲近用去了我两天的假期,被严重晒伤的皮肤还需慢慢恢复,而且还花费了一笔钱为我儿子食物中毒看医生。 分析:句中cost后的直接宾语有三个,即A,B and C三个并列宾语。 5. 句意:我不知道我竟然会爱上美式手语。 分析:此句为倒装句,little为否定词,当否定词位于句首时,句子要使用部分倒装。 6. 句意:我所看到的和我之前经历的完全不同。 分析:此句中what 引导的是主语从句,作句子的主语。此外,I had experienced in the past为定语从句,修饰先行词anything。 7. 句意:相反,如果有任何交谈,那会导致我们学到较少的东西。 分析:本句为复合句。if引导的是虚拟条件句,表示对过去的虚拟,所以本句中条件状语从句使用过去完成时there had been;主句使用“would have done”结构。 8. 句意:通过把《爱的徒劳》那丰富、幽默的文本翻译成手语,Deafinitely 剧院创造了一种对莎士比亚喜剧新的解释,通过向失聪人群和听力健全人群演出,旨在在失聪和有声世界之间搭建一座桥梁。 分析:在本句中,By translating ... BSL为方式状语,and连接creates和aims两个动词作并列谓语。 9. 句意:拍电影和四年后出演The Sting的经历所建立起来的友谊源于一个事实:尽管我们存在年龄差距,但我们都源自戏剧和直播电视的传统。 分析:本句的主干是 The friendship had its root in the fact.。其中,grew out of... later为that引导的定语从句,修饰先行词friendship;后面的although there was ... live TV为that引导的同位语从句,解释说明fact的内容。此外,同位语从句中还包含了一个although引导的让步状语从句。 10. 句意:我们有着这样的信念——如果足够幸运获得成功,就应该有所回馈。他成立了 Newman’s Own食品公司和为病重的孩子成立了Hole in the Wall camps夏令营,而我成立了圣丹斯协会和电影节。 分析:本句中,that引导同位语从句,解释说明belief的内容;同位语从句中包含了一个if引导的条件状语从句;破折号后出现了一个who引导的定语从句,修饰先行词kid。 11. 句意:Terrafugia 说机主需要通过测试并且完成20个小时的飞行时间才能驾驶 Transition,这一要求对于飞行员来说相对容易满足。 分析:本句中 a requirement 为同位语,是对前面的内容作补充说明,pilots would find relatively easy to meet是定语从句,省略了充当宾语的关系代词that/which,修饰先行词requirement。 12. 句意:早在1983年,杰克?舒尔茨和伊恩?鲍德温两个科学家报道说被昆虫咬的年轻枫树释放会一种邻近的植物能够获得的特殊气味。 分析:本句中that引导宾语从句,作reported的宾语,从句中包含一个that引导的定语从句,修饰先行词smell。getting bitten by insects为现在分词作后置定语,修饰maple trees。 13. 句意为:如果有人敲门,并且不是什么重要的事情,那就礼貌地谢绝,让别人知道你很忙,这样他们就会得到暗示,当门关着的时候,你不想被打扰。 分析:本句为if引导条件状语从句。在主句中,you’re busy是know的宾语从句;so引导结果状语从句,在结果状语从句中包含一个that引导同位语从句,解释说明hint的内容。同时同位语从句又包含了一个when引导时间状语从句,因此句子的主句为you’re not to be disturbed.。 14. 句意:布拉德福德把建筑物和土地卖给了一家当地的开发商,这家开发商打算在电影院所在的土地上建一个购物中心。 分析:本句中which引导非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词a local development firm;此外,定语从句中又包含一个where引导的定语从句。 15. 句意:纽卡斯尔大学的智能运输团队已经把电动汽车转变成名叫“DriveLAB”的移动实验室,目的是了解老年人司机面临的挑战和发现关键的问题所在。 16. 句意:对于很多老年人来说,特别是那些独自居住在乡间的老年人,驾驶对于保持他们(老年人)的独立性是非常重要的,这也给了他们出行而不用依赖他人的自由。 17. 句意:研究表明,放弃驾驶是导致老年人健康状况下降的主要原因之一,导致他们变得更加隔绝和懒散。 分析:that引导宾语从句,宾语从句中giving up driving为动名词短语作主语,leading to...作现在分词作状语。 18. 句意:Axani 在他的帖中说:他并不是寻求任何回报,使用这张多余机票的女士可以选择与他一起旅行,或者拿走机票自己旅行。 分析:本句中,that…and that…是并列的两个宾语从句,作wrote的宾语, who uses the extra ticket为定语从句,修饰先行词the woman。 10

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